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The family Stachybotriaceae was recently introduced to include the genera Myrothecium, Peethambara and Stachybotrys. Members of this family include important plant and human pathogens, as well as several species used in industrial and commercial applications as biodegraders and biocontrol agents. However, the generic boundaries in Stachybotriaceae are still poorly defined, as type material and sequence data are not readily available for taxonomic studies. To address this issue, we performed multi-locus phylogenetic analyses using partial gene sequences of the 28S large subunit (LSU), the internal transcribed spacer regions and intervening 5.8S nrRNA (ITS), the RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), calmodulin (cmdA), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) and β-tubulin (tub2) for all available type and authentic strains. Supported by morphological characters these data resolved 33 genera in the Stachybotriaceae. These included the nine already established genera Albosynnema, Alfaria, Didymostilbe, Myrothecium, Parasarcopodium, Peethambara, Septomyrothecium, Stachybotrys and Xepicula. At the same time the generic names Melanopsamma, Memnoniella and Virgatospora were resurrected. Phylogenetic inference further showed that both the genera Myrothecium and Stachybotrys are polyphyletic resulting in the introduction of 13 new genera with myrothecium-like morphology and eight new genera with stachybotrys-like morphology.
biodegraders, generic concept, human and plant pathogens, indoor mycobiota, multi-gene phylogeny, species concept, taxonomy
Generic hyper-diversity in Stachybotriaceae
L. Lombard, 1 J. Houbraken, 1 C. Decock, 2 R.A. Samson, 1 M. Meijer, 1 M. Reblova, 3 J.Z. Groenewald, 1 and P.W. Crous 1 , 4 , 5 , 6
Detailed morphological study of more than 2600 North East Atlantic (NEA) sphaerodorids (SphaerodoridaeAnnelida) and phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences of representatives of several identified morphospecies enforced changing the current systematic classification within the family allowed the discovery of new species provided new information about the morphological and genetic characterisation of members of this group and increased the species occurrence data to better infer their geographic and bathymetric distribution ranges. Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear (18S rRNA and 28S rRNA) and mitochondrial sequences (COI and 16S rRNA) of NEA short-bodied sphaerodorids revealed outstanding results including paraphyly of the genera SphaerodoropsisSphaerodoridium, and Sphaerephesia. The number of longitudinal and transverse rows of dorsal macrotubercles is proposed as potential synapomorphies for the main clades and are consequently herein used for the genera delimitation. The new classification proposed here implies nomenclatural changes and the erection of a new genus Geminofilumgen. n. to accommodate the species previously considered as Sphaerodoropsis with two transverse rows of dorsal macrotubercles per segment. Four species are being described herein: Euritmianordica Capa & Bakken sp. n.Sphaerephesiamultichaeta Capa Moreira & Parapar sp. n.Sphaerephesiaponsi Capa Parapar & Moreira sp. n. and Sphaerodoridiumceliae Moreira Capa & Parapar sp. n. Characterisation of the other 21 species including updated iconography and an identification key to all NEA short-bodied sphaerodorids are provided.
16S rRNA, 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, classification, COI, identification key, integrative taxonomy, morphology, new genus, new species, phylogeny, systematics
Systematic re-structure and new species of Sphaerodoridae (Annelida) after morphological revision and molecular phylogenetic analyses of the North East Atlantic fauna
Maria Capa,corresponding author1,2 Arne Nygren,3 Julio Parapar,4 Torkild Bakken,2 Karin Meißner,5 and Juan Moreira6
Twenty percent of individuals with a strong family and/or personal history of breast and ovarian cancer carry a deleterious mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Identification of mutations in these genes is extremely beneficial for patients pursuing risk reduction strategies. Approximately 7% of individuals who have genetic testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 carry a variant of uncertain significance (VUS), making clinical management less certain. The majority of identified VUS occur only in one to two individuals; these variants are not able to be classified using current classification models with segregation analysis components.
To develop a clinically applicable method that can predict the pathogenicity of VUS that does not require familial information or segregation analysis, we identified characteristics of breast or ovarian tumors that distinguished sporadic tumors from tumors with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. Study participants included individuals with known deleterious mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 and individuals with classified or unclassified BRCA variants.
We applied the models to 57 tumors with 43 different deleterious BRCA mutations and 57 tumors with 54 unique classified and unclassified BRCA variants. Of the 33 previously unclassified VUS studied, we found evidence of neutrality for 21.
Our models showed 98% sensitivity and 76% specificity for predicting classified DNA changes. We classified 64% of unknown variants as neutral. Classification of VUS as neutral will have immediate benefit for those individuals and their family members. These models are adaptable for the clinic and will be useful for individuals with limited available family history.
Clinically Applicable Models to Characterize BRCA1 and BRCA2 Variants of Uncertain Significance
Andrew D. Spearman, Kevin Sweet, Xiao-Ping Zhou, Jane McLennan, Fergus J. Couch, and Amanda Ewart Toland
2008 Nov 20;