White crystalline powder
Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaert.) Libosch. ex Fisch. et Mey/Rehmanniae Radix
(1S,4aS,5R,7aR)-1-(β-D-Glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy-7-(hydroxymethyl)-5,7a-dihydrocyclopenta[c]pyran-4a(1H)-yl 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-α-D-glucopyranoside/α-D-Glucopyranoside, (1S,4aS,5R,7aR)-1-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-5,7a-dihydro-5-hydroxy-7-(hydroxymethyl)cyclopenta[c]pyran-4a(1H)-yl 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-/Rehmannioside D/RhMannioside D
1052.4±65.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
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In present study seven RAPD primers were used to access the diversity within and among twelve populations of three mushroom species Ganoderma lucidum, leucoagaricus sp. and Lentinus sp. Total of 111 bands were scored by 7 RAPD primers in 30 accessions of three mushroom species collected from different sampling sites of central India. Total 111 bands were generated using seven primers which were F-1, OPG-06, OPC-07, OPD-08, OPA-02, OPD-02, OPB-10. All 111 bands were polymorphic in nature (100%). Therefore, it revealed that the used primers had sufficient potency for population studies and 30 accessions had higher genetic differences among each other. In best of the knowledge, this is the first report, which accesses the genetic diversity between three mushroom species (Gd Ganoderma lucidum, Lg Leucoagaricus sp., Ls Lentinus). The polymorphic percentage ranged from 3.60 to 23% within twelve populations, while polymorphic percentage among group was 40.56, among population within groups was 41.12 and within population was 18.32. This indicated that the genetic diversity within the population was very low, but slightly higher in the populations of three species. Among three groups representing Gd., Lg and Ls, Among populations within groups shown highest percentage of variation (Pv = 41.12) while within populations, the lowest percentage of variation (18.32) was observed. This result also support that the highest genetic variation was present among groups in comparison to among the population within a species and lowest genetic variation was observed within the population.
Genetic diversity, Polymorphic, Population, Primer, Variation
Inter and intraspecific genetic diversity (RAPD) among three most frequent species of macrofungi (Ganoderma lucidum, Leucoagricus sp. and Lentinus sp.) of Tropical forest of Central India
Sandhya Dwivedi,a,⁎ Surendra Singh,a U.K. Chauhan,b and Mahendra Kumar Tiwaric
2017 Dec 2
The Genomes of Three Uneven Siblings: Footprints of the Lifestyles of Three Trichoderma Species
Monika Schmoll,corresponding authora,*Christoph Dattenbock,a Nohemi Carreras-VillaseNor,b Artemio Mendoza-Mendoza,c Doris Tisch,d Mario Ivan Aleman,e Scott E. Baker,f Christopher Brown,g Mayte Guadalupe Cervantes-Badillo,h Jose Cetz-Chel,b Gema Rosa Cristobal-Mondragon,h Luis Delaye,e Edgardo Ulises Esquivel-Naranjo,b,* Alexa Frischmann,d Jose de Jesus Gallardo-Negrete,h Monica Garcia-Esquivel,b Elida Yazmin Gomez-Rodriguez,h David R. Greenwood,i Miguel Hernandez-ONate,b,* Joanna S. Kruszewska,j Robert Lawry,c Hector M. Mora-Montes,k Tania MuNoz-Centeno,h Maria Fernanda Nieto-Jacobo,c Guillermo Nogueira Lopez,c Vianey Olmedo-Monfil,k Macario Osorio-Concepcion,h Sebastian Piłsyk,j Kyle R. Pomraning,f Aroa Rodriguez-Iglesias,a Maria Teresa Rosales-Saavedra,h J. Alejandro Sanchez-Arreguin,b Verena Seidl-Seiboth,d Alison Stewart,l Edith Elena Uresti-Rivera,h Chih-Li Wang,m Ting-Fang Wang,n Susanne Zeilinger,d,o Sergio Casas-Flores,h and Alfredo Herrera-Estrellacorresponding authorb,*
2016 Feb 10
Considerable progress was made by the introduction of interferon to the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. This treatment, however, is associated with the risk of developing or exacerbating autoimmune diseases, with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis being one of them. The aim of our study was to evaluate the predisposition to autoimmune thyroiditis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus during IFN-alpha therapy, depending on the presence of polymorphisms in the promoter region of CTLA-4C (−318)T gene and in exon 1 of A49G gene as well as C1858T transition of PTPN22 gene.
The study was conducted in 149 patients aged between 18 and 70 years (mean of 43.9 years), including 82 men and 67 women. Control group for the assessment of the distribution of analyzed polymorphism of genotypes consisted of 200 neonates, from whom umbilical blood was drawn for the tests. The patients were divided into three groups: group 1 consisted of 114 patients without thyroid impairment before and during IFN-alpha therapy, group 2 contained 9 patients with AT with the onset prior to IFN-alpha treatment, and group 3 comprised 26 patients with AT starting after the beginning of IFN-alpha therapy.
The frequency of C1858Tand C(−318)T genotypes observed in the study group did not differ significantly from control group. A significant difference, however, was found for A49G polymorphism.
No association was demonstrated between the occurrence of autoimmune thyroiditis with the onset during IFN-alpha therapy and the presence of polymorphisms within CTLA-4 C(−318)T gene in the promoter region and A49G in exon 1, as well as C1858T transition of PTPN22 gene.
Genetic mutations, Hepatitis C virus, Interferon alpha, Thyroiditis
Association between genetic mutations and the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with interferon alpha
Janina Krupińska,1 Waldemar Urbanowicz,2 Mariusz Kaczmarczyk,3 Grzegorz Kulig,1 Elżbieta Sowińska-Przepiera,1 Elżbieta Andrysiak-Mamos,1 and Anhelli Syreniczcorresponding author1