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533.3ºC at 760mmHg
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Background & objectives:
Individual donation nucleic acid testing (ID-NAT) is considered as sensitive technology to assess blood safety from viral transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) in blood donors. The present study was aimed to analyze the results of ID-NAT for three years (2013-2015) with special reference to different types of donors and their age ranges in a tertiary care centre in north India.
The results of ID-NAT for three years were retrospectively analyzed at our centre. A total of 168,433 donations were tested with ID-NAT, of which 10,467 were tested with Procleix® Ultrio® reagents and 157,966 were tested with Procleix® UltrioPlus® reagents, and the results were compared with those of serology to calculate the NAT yield in voluntary, replacement, first-time and repeat donors.
A combined NAT yield was observed as one in 1031 out of 167,069 seronegative donations with HBV yield as one in 1465, HCV yield as one in 3885 and HIV-1 as one in 167,069. Yield for co-infection (HCV and HBV) was one in 41,767. A high NAT yield was observed in replacement donors (1 in 498) as compared to voluntary donors (1 in 1320).
Interpretation & conclusions:
Addition of NAT to serology improved the blood safety in our centre interdicting possibility of 150 TTIs annually. It has also reemphasized the safety of voluntary over replacement donors. The results also highlight the need of proper counselling, notification and referral guidelines of NAT yield donors in our country and other countries which lack them.
First-time donor, individual donation nucleic acid testing, nucleic acid testing yield, repeat donors, replacement donor, voluntary donor
Initial trends of individual donation nucleic acid testing in voluntary & replacement donors from a tertiary care centre in north India
Rekha Hans, Neelam Marwaha, Suresh Sharma, Suchet Sachdev, and Ratti Ram Sharma
The association between chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection and metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains inconclusive. This study was designed to determine the association between CHB infection and MetS among the US population with updated data and adjustments for a comprehensive set of risk factors.
Adults aged 18 years or older who were clinically assessed for Hepatitis B and MetS from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014 cycles were included in the study (N = 53,392,666). MetS was defined according to the NCEP/ATP III guideline. CHB was identified by the seropositivity of Hepatitis B surface antigen and core antibody in the absence of Hepatitis B surface antibody. Rao-Scott χ2test and logistic regressions were employed in the analyses.
MetS was less prevalent among adults with CHB compared to adults without CHB (12.1% vs. 18.8%, p = 0.073). In adjusted analyses, adults with CHB were 48% less likely to have MetS compared to those without CHB (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.29-0.94). Regarding individual component of MetS, CHB was inversely associated with high waist circumference (AOR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.21-0.49) and hypoalphalipoproteinemia (AOR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.25-0.91). No association between CHB and other metabolic components were found.
CHB was inversely associated with MetS, high waist circumference, and hypoalphalipoproteinemia. No significant association was found between CHB and other MetS components.
Chronic hepatitis B infection, Metabolic syndrome, High waist circumference, Hypoalphalipoproteinemia, NHANES
Association between chronic hepatitis B infection and metabolic syndrome
Xiaohui Zhao,corresponding author Drishti Shah, and Usha Sambamoorthi
The first genome sequence of a group A Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M23 (emm23) strain (M23ND), isolated from an invasive human infection, has been completed. The genome of this opacity factor-negative (SOF−) strain is composed of a circular chromosome of 1,846,477 bp. Gene profiling showed that this strain contained six phage-encoded and 24 chromosomally inherited well-known virulence factors, as well as 11 pseudogenes. The bacterium has acquired four large prophage elements, ΦM23ND.1 to ΦM23ND.4, harboring genes encoding streptococcal superantigen (ssa), streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (speC, speH, and speI), and DNases (spd1 and spd3), with phage integrase genes being present at one flank of each phage insertion, suggesting that the phages were integrated by horizontal gene transfer. Comparative analyses revealed unique large-scale genomic rearrangements that result in genomic rearrangements that differ from those of previously sequenced GAS strains. These rearrangements resulted in an imbalanced genomic architecture and translocations of chromosomal virulence genes. The covS sensor in M23ND was identified as a pseudogene, resulting in the attenuation of speB function and increased expression of the genes for the chromosomal virulence factors multiple-gene activator (mga), M protein (emm23), C5a peptidase (scpA), fibronectin-binding proteins (sfbI and fbp54), streptolysin O (slo), hyaluronic acid capsule (hasA), streptokinase (ska), and DNases (spd and spd3), which were verified by PCR. These genes are responsible for facilitating host epithelial cell binding and and/or immune evasion, thus further contributing to the virulence of M23ND. In conclusion, strain M23ND has become highly pathogenic as the result of a combination of multiple genetic factors, particularly gene composition and mutations, prophage integrations, unique genomic rearrangements, and regulated expression of critical virulence factors.
Unique Genomic Arrangements in an Invasive Serotype M23 Strain of Streptococcus pyogenes Identify Genes That Induce Hypervirulence
Yunjuan Bao,a,b Zhong Liang,a Claire Booyjzsen,a Jeffrey A. Mayfield,a Yang Li,b Shaun W. Lee,c Victoria A. Ploplis,a Hui Song,b and Francis J. Castellinocorresponding authora