Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
636.9±55.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:132242-52-5) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Growth faltering largely occurs in the first 23 months after birth and is thought to be largely determined by various harmful or protective socioeconomic conditions. Children 23 months or younger, however, have only been partially exposed to these conditions, implying that statistical associations between these conditions and child growth may be substantially smaller in samples that include younger children.
To test the prediction that associations between child anthropometric outcomes and various socioeconomic conditions are systematically different for older and younger children.
We analyzed data for 699,421 children aged 0-59 months, drawn from 125 DHS implemented between 1992 and 2014 in 57 countries. The outcome variables were height-for-age Z scores (HAZ) and stunting (HAZ<-2), and weight-for-height z scores (WHZ) and wasting (WHZ<-2). Independent variables included household wealth, parental education, maternal height, demographic factors, and exposure to WASH and health services. We used age-disaggregated regressions to examine how the associations between dependent and independent variables vary across different child age ranges. Results Non-parametric regression results reaffirmed that most linear growth faltering and wasting takes place prior to 23 months of age. Estimates of the magnitude of association with wealth, education and improved toilet use from HAZ regressions are systematically larger in the sample of children 24-59 months than in the 0-23 month or 0-59 month samples; the reverse is true for WHZ regressions. Conclusions Previous observational analyses appear to substantially underestimate the protective impacts of a wide range of underlying determinants on stunting. Conversely, wasting rates are typically low for children 24-59 months, implying that associations between underlying conditions and wasting may be stronger for children 0-23 months of age. Such analyses should pay closer attention to age disaggregation; researchers should be aware of the age effect reported in the current study and present analysis stratified by age.
The timing of growth faltering has important implications for observational analyses of the underlying determinants of nutrition outcomes
Harold Alderman, Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Methodology, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing* and Derek Headey, Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Editor
Geographic variation in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease and incidence of end-stage renal disease has been previously reported. However, the geographic epidemiology of rapid estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline has not been examined.
We built a longitudinal cohort of 2,107,570 US veterans to characterize the spatial epidemiology of and examine the associations between US county characteristics and rapid eGFR decline.
There were 169,029 (8.02%) with rapid eGFR decline (defined as eGFR slope < -5 ml/min per 1.73 m2/year). The prevalence of rapid eGFR decline adjusted for age, race, gender, diabetes, and hypertension varied by county from 4.10%-6.72% in the lowest prevalence quintile to 8.41%-22.04% in the highest prevalence quintile (P for heterogeneity < 0.001). Examination of adjusted prevalence showed substantial geographic variation in those with and without diabetes and those with and without hypertension (P for heterogeneity < 0.001). Cohort participants had higher odds of rapid eGFR decline when living in counties with unfavorable characteristics in domains including health outcomes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15; confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-1.22), health behaviors (OR = 1.08; CI = 1.03-1.13), clinical care (OR = 1.11; CI = 1.06-1.16), socioeconomic conditions (OR = 1.15; CI = 1.09-1.22), and physical environment (OR = 1.15; CI = 1.01-1.20); living in counties with high percentage of minorities and immigrants was associated with rapid eGFR decline (OR = 1.25; CI = 1.20-1.31). Spatial analyses suggest the presence of cluster of counties with high prevalence of rapid eGFR decline. Discussion Our findings show substantial geographic variation in rapid eGFR decline among US veterans; the variation persists in analyses stratified by diabetes and hypertension status; results show associations between US county characteristics in domains capturing health, socioeconomic, environmental, and diversity conditions, and rapid eGFR decline.
disparity in kidney disease, eGFR decline, geographic information systems, geographic variation, kidney function, spatial epidemiology
Geographic Variation and US County Characteristics Associated With Rapid Kidney Function Decline
Benjamin Bowe,1 Yan Xie,1 Hong Xian,1,2 Min Lian,3 and Ziyad Al-Aly1
Studies from general practitioner (GP) populations from various European countries show a high prevalence of burnout, yet data from Germany are scarce and there are no data comparing GPs from solo versus group practices.
This cross-sectional survey addressed all GPs from a German network of family medicine practices comprising 185 practices. Participants were asked to fill in a self-administered questionnaire addressing socio-demographic and job-related characteristics. The German version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to measure the dimensions emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment (PA). Each participant was categorized as having high EE, high DP and low PA following pre-defined cut-offs.
A total of 214 GPs from 129 practices participated: 65.9% male, 24.8% solo practice. Of all GPs, 34.1% (n = 73) scored high for EE, 29.0% (n = 62) high for DP, 21.5% (n = 46) low for PA and 7.5% (n = 16) for all three dimensions. A higher risk for EE was found among female physicians, those unsatisfied with their job, those using few stress-regulating measures regularly and those reporting bad work-life balance. Burnout prevalence was higher in GPs in group than in solo practices (37.9% vs. 28.8% had high EE, 33.1% vs. 18.9% had high DP and 22.8% vs. 18.9% had low PA). A significantly higher prevalence of burnout symptoms was found in group practice employees compared to group practice owners.
Burnout prevalence was higher among physicians in group practices compared to solo practices. In group practices, employed, young, female and part-time working physicians showed a higher burnout risk.
Prevalence of burnout among German general practitioners: Comparison of physicians working in solo and group practices
Annegret Dreher, Data curation, Formal analysis, Methodology, Validation, Visualization, Writing - original draft,1,* Mirjam Theune, Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Methodology, Writing - original draft,2 Christine Kersting, Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Validation, Visualization, Writing - review & editing,2 Franziska Geiser, Conceptualization, Writing - review & editing,3 and Birgitta Weltermann, Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Writing - review & editing1 Jenny M. Wilkinson, Editor