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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:207671-50-9) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
This study aimed at studying the potential neuroprotective effect of Rutin hydrate (RH) alone or in conjugation with α-tocopherol against cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment in rats and to investigate the mechanisms of action. Rats intoxicated with CdCl2 were treated with the vehicle, RH, α-tocopherol or combined treatment were examined, and compared to control rats received vehicle or individual doses of either drug. Data confirmed that RH improves spatial memory function by increasing acetylcholine availability, boosting endogenous antioxidant potential, activating cell survival and inhibiting apoptotic pathways, an effect that is more effective when RH was conjugated with α-tocopherol. Mechanism of RH action includes activation of PP2A mediated inhibiting of ERK1/2 and JNK apoptotic pathways and inhibition of PTEN mediated activation of mTOR survival pathway. In conclusion, RH affords a potent neuroprotection against CdCl2-induced brain damage and memory dysfunction and co-administration of α-tocopherol enhances its activity.
Rutin hydrate; cadmium chloride; spatial memory-mTOR/Akt
Rutin hydrate ameliorates cadmium chloride-induced spatial memory loss and neural apoptosis in rats by enhancing levels of acetylcholine, inhibiting JNK and ERK1/2 activation and activating mTOR signalling.
Abdel-Aleem GA1,2, Khaleel EF3,4.
Recent evidence has suggested that cadmium (Cd) ions-induced neurotoxicity is associated with increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial-dependent and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate if rutin hydrate (RH), a well-reported neuroprotective and an antioxidant flavonoid, can ameliorate cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting the resultant ER stress. Rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 16/group) of control, control + RH (100 mg/kg), CdCl2 (5 mg/kg), and CdCl2 + RH. All treatments were administered orally for 30 days, on daily basis. Brain homogenates from CdCl2-treated rats showed increased oxidative stress and induced activation of ER stress characterized by increasing mRNA and protein levels of GRP78, ATF-6, CHOP and Xbp-1 and protein levels of p-elF2α, p-JNK1/2 and cleaved caspase-12. Also, CdCl2 significantly reduced Bcl-2, enhanced Bax translocation to the mitochondrial membrane, increased cytoplasmic levels of cytochrome-C and caspase-3, and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) (increased Vmax and reduced time to Vmax). In contrast, RH significantly enhanced levels GSH and activities of SOD, GSH-Px, decreased levels of MDA and inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mtPTP) in the brains of both control and CdCl2-treated rats. Interestingly, in brain homogenates of CdCl2-treated rats only, RH reduced all markers of ER stress, increased Bcl-2, reduced mitochondrial Bax translocation and improved mitochondrial coupling. It also reduced cytosolic levels of cytochrome-C, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-12. Overall, these findings support the efficiency of RH to inhibit ER stress in brains CdCl2-treated rats which is added to its existing mechanisms of neuroprotection. Abbreviations: ATF-6: activating transcription factor-6; Bax: Bcl-associated x; BBB: blood-brain barrier; Bcl-2: B-cell lymphoma 2; BiP: immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein; [Ca2+]i: intracellular free Ca2+ concentration; Cd: cadmium; CdCl2: cadmium chloride; CHOP: CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein; CMC: carboxymethyl cellulose; Δψm: mitochondrial membrane potential; elF2α: phospho-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ERAD: ER-associated protein degradation; ERK1/2: extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2; GADD 153: growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 153; GRP78, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein; GSH: reduced glutathione; GSH: reduced glutathione; GSH-Px: glutathione peroxidase; GSSG: glutathione disulfide (oxidized glutathione); IRE-1: inositol-requiring enzyme-1; JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase; MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; MDA: malondialdehyde; mTOR: Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin; mtPTP: mitochondrial permeability transition pore; ONOO-: peroxynitrite; PCR: polymerase chain reaction; PERK: protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase; p-JNK: phospho-JNK; qPCR: quantitative PCR; RCR: respiratory control ratio; RH: rutin hydrate; RHoGDI: Rho-GDP-dissociation inhibitor; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SOD: superoxide dismutase; UPR: unfolded protein response; VDAC: voltage-dependent anion channel; Vmax: maximal rate of pore opening; Xbp-1: X-box binding protein 1.
Cadmium chloride; brain; endoplasmic reticulum stress; rats; rutin hydrate
Rutin hydrate inhibits apoptosis in the brains of cadmium chloride-treated rats via preserving the mitochondrial integrity and inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Mostafa DG1,2, Khaleel EF1,3, Badi RM1,4, Abdel-Aleem GA5,6, Abdeen HM6,7.