Beneficial Effects of a Flavonoid Fraction of Herba Epimedii on Bone Metabolism in Ovariectomized Rats PUMID/DOI：DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1558294 Planta Med. 2016 Mar;82(4):322-9. A flavonoid fraction of Herba Epimedii, including eight flavonoid glycoside compounds, epimedoside A, ikarisoside F, baohuoside II, sagittatoside A, sagittatoside B, 7-O-rhamnosyl icariside II, 2''-O-rhamnosyl icariside II, and baohuoside I, was isolated and prepared from the leaves of Herba Epimedii. This study was conducted to assess the potential effect of the flavonoid fraction of Herba Epimedii on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Rats received repeated administration of a vehicle (ovariectomized), the flavonoid fraction of Herba Epimedii (7.5, 15, 30 mg/kg/d), and ipriflavone (200 mg/kg/d) once a day for 8 weeks, beginning 4 weeks after ovariectomization. Then, the bone turnover markers, bone biomechanical properties, trabecular architecture, and related protein expressions were evaluated by biochemical assay kits, mechanical testing, microcomputed tomography, immunohistochemical evaluation, and Western blot analysis. Treatment with the flavonoid fraction of Herba Epimedii (15, 30mg/kg/d) and ipriflavone (200 mg/kg/d) significantly increased bone strength while dramatically inhibiting the serum alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase levels in ovariectomized rats. Furthermore, the flavonoid fraction of Herba Epimedii also increased osteoprotegerin protein expression and reduced the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand protein expression compared with ovariectomized rats. In addition, the microcomputed tomography results showed that the flavonoid fraction of Herba Epimedii treatment significantly improved trabecular bone mineral density and restored the bone microarchitecture in ovariectomized rats. Therefore, our results indicated that the flavonoid fraction of Herba Epimedii might be beneficial for improving postmenopausal osteoporosis and should be considered as a promising candidate for treating postmenopausal osteoporosis.
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Ratites (ostriches, emus, rheas, cassowaries, and kiwis) are large, flightless birds that have long fascinated biologists. Their current distribution on isolated southern land masses is believed to reflect the breakup of the paleocontinent of Gondwana. The prevailing view is that ratites are monophyletic, with the flighted tinamous as their sister group, suggesting a single loss of flight in the common ancestry of ratites. However, phylogenetic analyses of 20 unlinked nuclear genes reveal a genome-wide signal that unequivocally places tinamous within ratites, making ratites polyphyletic and suggesting multiple losses of flight. Phenomena that can mislead phylogenetic analyses, including long branch attraction, base compositional bias, discordance between gene trees and species trees, and sequence alignment errors, have been eliminated as explanations for this result. The most plausible hypothesis requires at least three losses of flight and explains the many morphological and behavioral similarities among ratites by parallel or convergent evolution. Finally, this phylogeny demands fundamental reconsideration of proposals that relate ratite evolution to continental drift.
convergence, flightlessness, Paleognath, homoplasy, vicariance biogeography
Phylogenomic evidence for multiple losses of flight in ratite birds
John Harshman,a,b,c Edward L. Braun,d,e,c Michael J. Braun,f,g,c Christopher J. Huddleston,f Rauri C. K. Bowie,a,h,i Jena L. Chojnowski,d Shannon J. Hackett,a Kin-Lan Han,d,f,g Rebecca T. Kimball,d Ben D. Marks,j Kathleen J. Miglia,k William S. Moore,k Sushma Reddy,a Frederick H. Sheldon,j David W. Steadman,l Scott J. Steppan,m Christopher C. Witt,j,n and Tamaki Yurid,f
2008 Sep 9;
The origin of vertebrates was defined by evolution of a skeleton; however, little is known about the developmental mechanisms responsible for this landmark evolutionary innovation. In jawed vertebrates, cartilage matrix consists predominantly of type II collagen (Col2α1), whereas that of jawless fishes has long been thought to be noncollagenous. We recently showed that Col2α1 is present in lamprey cartilage, indicating that type II collagen-based cartilage evolved earlier than previously recognized. Here, we investigate the origin of vertebrate cartilage, and we report that hagfishes, the sister group to lampreys, also have Col2α1-based cartilage, suggesting its presence in the common ancestor of crown-group vertebrates. We go on to show that lancelets, a sister group to vertebrates, possess an ancestral clade A fibrillar collagen (ColA) gene that is expressed in the notochord. Together, these results suggest that duplication and diversification of ColA genes at the chordate-vertebrate transition may underlie the evolutionary origin of vertebrate skeletal tissues.
development, gene duplication, skeleton evolution, chordate, notochord
Hagfish and lancelet fibrillar collagens reveal that type II collagen-based cartilage evolved in stem vertebrates
GuangJun Zhang* and Martin J. Cohn*†‡
2006 Nov 7
Red colobus monkeys, due to their sensitivity to environmental change, are indicator species of the overall health of their tropical rainforest habitats. As a result of habitat loss and overhunting, they are among the most endangered primates in the world, with very few viable populations remaining. Traditionally, extant indicator species have been used to signify the conditions of their current habitats, but they have also been employed to track past environmental conditions by detecting previous population fluctuations. Kibale National Park (KNP) in Uganda harbors the only remaining unthreatened large population of red colobus. We used microsatellite DNA to evaluate the historical demography of these red colobus and, therefore, the long-term stability of their habitat. We find that the red colobus population throughout KNP has been stable for at least ∼40,000 years. We interpret this result as evidence of long-term forest stability because a change in the available habitat or population movement would have elicited a corresponding change in population size. We conclude that the forest of what is now Kibale National Park may have served as a Late Pleistocene refuge for many East African species.
Coalescent theory, conservation biology, historical demography, microsatellites, red colobus
Primate DNA suggests long-term stability of an African rainforest
Julie M Allen,1,2 Michael M Miyamoto,2 Chieh-Hsi Wu,3 Tamar E Carter,1,4 Judit Ungvari-Martin,1,2 Kristin Magrini,1 and Colin A Chapman5,6