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Highly purified peripheral T lymphocytes do not proliferate in response to phytohemagglutinin A or concanavalin A, unless adherent HLA-DR+ monocytes are added as accessory cells. The accessory function (AF) of monocytes is mediated through the release of interleukin-1 (IL-1). We here report that cells from three human leukemic lines–K562, HL-60, and U-937–could exert AF and efficiently replace monocytes in a 72-hr mitogen-stimulated proliferation assay. This AF was clearly related to precise maturational stages of these cells, since the hematopoietic precursor K562 cells spontaneously exerted high AF but lost this property when treated with differentiation inducers such as sodium butyrate or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). On the other hand, untreated HL-60 and U-937 cells exhibited no spontaneous AF, but they acquired this function when induced to differentiate either along the granulocytic pathway (dimethyl sulfoxide-treated HL-60 cells) or along the monocytic pathway (PMA-treated HL-60 and U-937 cells). Supernatants from PMA-triggered K562 or HL-60 cells allowed the proliferative response of murine thymocytes to phytohemagglutinin A and were therefore shown to contain IL-1. Analysis of phenotypical markers showed that AF and IL-1 production were not restricted to cells of the monocytic lineage. No HLA-DR antigen could be detected on K562 and HL-60 cells. Thus, the expression of HLA-DR antigens is not required for AF and IL-1 production in response to mitogens. Human leukemia cell lines could provide useful sources of human IL-1.
Leukemia cell lines can replace monocytes for mitogen-induced T-lymphocyte responses: this accessory function is dependent upon their differentiation stage.
H Wakasugi, A Harel, M C Dokhelar, D Fradelizi, and T Tursz
Self-standing Bi2Te3 networks of interconnected nanowires were fabricated in three-dimensional porous anodic alumina templates (3D-AAO) with a porous structure spreading in all three spatial dimensions. Pulsed electrodeposition parameters were optimized to grow highly oriented Bi2Te3 interconnected nanowires with stoichiometric composition inside those 3D-AAO templates. The nanowire networks were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and Raman spectroscopy. The results are compared to those obtained in films and 1D nanowires grown under similar conditions. The crystalline structure and composition of the 3D Bi-Te nanowire network are finely tuned by controlling the applied voltage and the relaxation time off at zero current density during the deposition. With this fabrication method, and controlling the electrodeposition parameters, stoichiometric Bi2Te3 networks of interconnected nanowires have been obtained, with a preferential orientation along [1 1 0], which makes them optimal candidates for out-of-plane thermoelectric applications. Moreover, the templates in which they are grown can be dissolved and the network of interconnected nanowires is self-standing without affecting its composition and orientation properties.
electrochemistry, bismuth telluride, nanowires, 3D-AAO, nanonetwork, metamaterial
Three-Dimensional Bi2Te3 Networks of Interconnected Nanowires: Synthesis and Optimization
Alejandra Ruiz-Clavijo, Olga Caballero-Calero, and Marisol Martin-Gonzalez*
Understanding the tissue-specific pattern of gene expression is critical in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of tissue development, gene function, and transcriptional regulations of biological processes. Although tissue-specific gene expression information is available in several databases, follow-up strategies to integrate and use these data are limited. The objective of the current study was to identify and evaluate novel tissue-specific genes in human and mouse tissues by performing comparative microarray database analysis and semi-quantitative PCR analysis. We developed a powerful approach to predict tissue-specific genes by analyzing existing microarray data from the NCBI′s Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) public repository. We investigated and confirmed tissue-specific gene expression in the human and mouse kidney, liver, lung, heart, muscle, and adipose tissue. Applying our novel comparative microarray approach, we confirmed 10 kidney, 11 liver, 11 lung, 11 heart, 8 muscle, and 8 adipose specific genes. The accuracy of this approach was further verified by employing semi-quantitative PCR reaction and by searching for gene function information in existing publications. Three novel tissue-specific genes were discovered by this approach including AMDHD1 (amidohydrolase domain containing 1) in the liver, PRUNE2 (prune homolog 2) in the heart, and ACVR1C (activin A receptor, type IC) in adipose tissue. We further confirmed the tissue-specific expression of these 3 novel genes by real-time PCR. Among them, ACVR1C is adipose tissue-specific and adipocyte-specific in adipose tissue, and can be used as an adipocyte developmental marker. From GEO profiles, we predicted the processes in which AMDHD1 and PRUNE2 may participate. Our approach provides a novel way to identify new sets of tissue-specific genes and to predict functions in which they may be involved.
Identification of Novel Tissue-Specific Genes by Analysis of Microarray Databases: A Human and Mouse Model
Yan Song,# 1 Jinsoo Ahn,# 1 , 2 Yeunsu Suh, 1 Michael E. Davis, 1 and Kichoon Lee 1 , 2 , *