This product is isolated and purified from the rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge
Effects of sarsasapogenin on the activity of osteoblasts and the differentiation and the function of osteoclasts[Reference: WebLink]Sarsasapogenin induces apoptosis via the reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial pathway and ER stress pathway in HeLa cells.[Pubmed: 24383086]Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Nov 15;441(2):519-24. Sarsasapogenin is a sapogenin from the Chinese medical herb Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, we revealed that Sarsasapogenin exhibited antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis in vitro as determined by Hoechst staining analysis and double staining of Annexin V-FITC/PI. In addition, cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase was observed in Sarsasapogenin-treated HeLa cells. Moreover, the results revealed that perturbations in the mitochondrial membrane were associated with the deregulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio which led to the upregulation of cytochrome c, followed by activation of caspases. Meanwhile, treatment of Sarsasapogenin also activated Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) signaling pathways and these changes were accompanied by increased expression of CHOP. Salubrinal (Sal), a selective inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, partially abrogated the Sarsasapogenin-related cell death. Furthermore, Sarsasapogenin provoked the generation of reactive oxygen species, while the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) effectively blocked the activation of ER stress and apoptosis, suggesting that Sarsasapogenin-induced reactive oxygen species is an early event that triggers ER stress mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the results demonstrate that Sarsasapogenin exerts its antitumor activity through both reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediate mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress cell death.Journal of China Pharmaceutical University, 2009, 179(3):430-6. To observe the effects of Sarsasapogenin(SAR) on osteoblasts and osteoclasts cultured in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS:Colonal murine calvarial osteoblast-like cell line MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured in vitro.MTT,p-nitropheneye phosphate and tinctorial method of alizarin Bordeaux were used to investigate the effects of SAR on the proliferation,ALP expression,and mineralization tuberculation of MC3T3-E1 cells.Mature osteoclasts were isolated from the long bone of one-day rat.Meanwhile,marrow cells of mouse bone were cultured with induction of 1,25(OH)2VitD3.During the culturing of osteoclasts or marrow cells,SAR of different concentrations was added into the medium.The number of osteoclasts was recognized as tartrate resistant acid phosphatase(TRAP)(+) multinucleate cells and the resorption lacuna on bone slice were examined with toluidine blue staining. CONCLUSIONS:The results suggest that SAR can effectively promote the proliferation,differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts cultured in vitro.Besides,SAR can inhibit the generation of osteoclasts from marrow cells.
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Sarsasapogenin derivative 5n (SGD 5n) is a new compound with potent antitumor efficacy, but the low solubility severely affects its absorption and bioavailability. Therefore, the SGD 5n-loaded mPEG-PLGA block copolymer micelles were developed to improve the value of SGD 5n in clinical application. The polymeric micelles were prepared by an organic solvent evaporation method, and the encapsulation efficiency (EE), drug loading (DL), critical micelle concentrations (CMC), morphology, particle size, and zeta potential were determined. The cytotoxicity was examined by the MTT assay, and the cellular uptake study was performed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. A model of tumor-bearing mouse was established to study the antitumor activity in vivo. The results demonstrated that the particle size of the prepared micelle was 124.6 ± 9.6 nm, the encapsulation efficiency was 82.0 ± 2.9%, and the drug loading was 8.3 ± 0.4%. The results of cytotoxicity and cellular uptake demonstrated that the SGD 5n-loaded micelles could efficiently enter tumor cells, and the cellular uptake of SGD 5n presented concentration and time dependence. This study demonstrated that the prepared SGD 5n-loaded polymeric micelles had significant antitumor activity and provided a basis for clinical development of new compound SGD 5n.
antitumor; bioavailability; cytotoxicity; polymeric micelles; sarsasapogenin derivative
Preparation and Evaluation of mPEG-PLGA Block Copolymer Micelles Loaded with a Sarsasapogenin Derivative.
Wang S1, Liu M2, Wang W3, Li T1, Cui M1, Sun W2, Yang X4, Song S5.
2019 Aug 9
A series of multifunctional 3-piperazinecarboxylate sarsasapogenin derivatives were designed and synthesized against Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The protection against H2O2-triggered oxidative stress in PC12 cells, and inhibition on LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 cell lines in vitro by these derivatives were firstly evaluated. Most of the compounds showed better antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities compared with sarsasapogenin, especially AA34 and AA36. Structure-activity relationships revealed that benzyl group, electron-donating group and intramolecular hydrogen bond might be beneficial to enhancing their neuroprotective activities. Moreover, Aβ42 was the optimum predicted target based on the high 3D molecular similarity between compound AA36 and caprospinol. In the following experiments, AA36 significantly protected PC12 cells from Aβ-induced damage and improved learning and memory impairments in Aβ-injected mice. Thus AA36 is regarded as a potent anti-AD agent and N-substituted piperazinecarboxylate can be served as a promising structural unit for anti-AD drug design.
Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Alzheimer's disease; Antiinflammation; Antioxidation; Beta-amyloid; Sarsasapogenin derivatives; Structure-activity relationship
Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 3-piperazinecarboxylate sarsasapogenin derivatives as potential multifunctional anti-Alzheimer agents.
Yang GX1, Ge SL1, Wu Y1, Huang J1, Li SL2, Wang R3, Ma L4.
2018 Aug 5
A sarsasapogenin derivative, sarsasapogenin-AA22 (AA22), with cyclobutylamine at the 3-hydroxyl position of sarsasapogenin, has great neuroprotective activity in PC12 cells and NO production inhibitory activity in RAW264.7 cell lines. A method was developed to determine AA22 in rat plasma which was further applied to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of AA22 after taking a single dose of AA22. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used in the method, while diosgenin was used as internal standard. A simple protein precipitation based on acetonitrile was utilized. A simple sample cleanup promoted the throughput of the method considerably. The method was validated over the range of 1-1000 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient > 0.99. The lower limit of quantification was 1 ng/mL for AA22 in plasma. Intra- and inter-day accuracies for AA22 were 92-111 and 100-103%, respectively, and the inter-day precision was <15%. After a single oral dose of 25 mg/kg of AA22, the mean peak plasma concentration of AA22 was 2114 ± 362 ng/mL at 6 h. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve was 196,098 ± 69,375 h ng/mL, and the elimination half-life was 8.7 ± 2.2 h. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
LC/MS/MS; diosgenin; pharmacokinetics; sarsasapogenin-AA22
Development and validation of a UPLC-MS/MS method for determination of Sarsasapogenin-AA22 in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.
Pei L1, Ge S1,2, Ye Y1, Jiang Z1, Liang X1, Zhao W1, Ma L2.