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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:41743-86-6) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
The structure of the organic cation in the title compound, C15H16N3 +·ClO4 −, contains two essentially planar rings. Mean planes fitted through all non-H atoms of each ring system have an r.m.s. deviation of 0.019 a for the imidazole-based ring and 0.016 a for the 2,6-dimethylphenyl ring. The angle between the two planes is 86.76 (2)°. In the crystal structure, N—H⋯O interactions form a one-dimensional chain, which propagates in the b-axis direction. C—H⋯O interactions are also found in the crystal packing.
Gary S. Nichol,a,* Anuj Sharma,b and Hong-Yu Lib
2011 May 1;
Exosomes are lipid bilayer-enclosed extracellular vesicles (EVs) that contain proteins and nucleic acids. They are secreted by all cells and circulate in the blood. Specific detection and isolation of cancer cell-derived exosomes in circulation is currently lacking. Using mass spectrometry analyses, we identified a cell surface proteoglycan, glypican-1 (GPC1), specifically enriched on cancer cell-derived exosomes. GPC1+ circulating exosomes (crExos) were monitored and isolated using flow cytometry from the serum of cancer patients and mice with cancer. GPC1+ crExos were detected in the serum of patients with pancreas cancer with absolute specificity and sensitivity, distinguishing healthy subjects and patients with a benign pancreas disease from patients with early and late stage pancreas cancer. Levels of GPC1+ crExos correlate with tumor burden and survival in patients pre- and post-surgical tumor resection. GPC1+ crExos from patients and from mice with spontaneous pancreas tumors driven by oncogenic KRAS contained RNA with specific KRAS mutation, and it emerges as a reliable biomarker for the detection of PanIN lesions despite negative signal by MRI in mice. GPC1+ crExos may serve as a potential non-invasive diagnostic and screening tool to detect early stages of pancreas cancer to facilitate possible curative surgical therapy.
Glypican1 identifies cancer exosomes and facilitates early detection of cancer
Sonia A. Melo,1,#* Linda B. Luecke,1,* Christoph Kahlert,1,* Agustin F. Fernandez,2 Seth T. Gammon,3 Judith Kaye,1 Valerie S. LeBleu,1 Elizabeth A. Mittendorf,4 Juergen Weitz,5 Nuh Rahbari,5 Christoph Reissfelder,5 Christian Pilarsky,5 Mario F. Fraga,2,6 David Piwnica-Worms,3 and Raghu Kalluri1,§
2016 Jul 9.
The descriptive taxonomic study reported here is focused on Glyptapanteles, a species-rich genus of hymenopteran parasitoid wasps. The species were found within the framework of two independent long-term Neotropical caterpillar rearing projects: northwestern Costa Rica (area de Conservacion Guanacaste, ACG) and eastern Andes, Ecuador (centered on Yanayacu Biological Station, YBS). One hundred thirty-six new species of Glyptapanteles Ashmead are described and all of them are authored by Arias-Penna. None of them was recorded in both countries; thus, 78 are from Costa Rica and the remaining 58 from Ecuador. Before this revision, the number of Neotropical described Glyptapanteles did not reach double digits. Reasonable boundaries among species were generated by integrating three datasets: Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) gene sequencing data, natural history (host records), and external morphological characters. Each species description is accompanied by images and known geographical distribution. Characteristics such as shape, ornamentation, and location of spun Glyptapanteles cocoons were imaged as well. Host-parasitoid associations and food plants are also here published for the first time. A total of 88 species within 84 genera in 15 Lepidoptera families was encountered as hosts in the field. With respect to food plants, these wild-caught parasitized caterpillars were reared on leaves of 147 species within 118 genera in 60 families. The majority of Glyptapanteles species appeared to be relatively specialized on one family of Lepidoptera or even on some much lower level of taxonomic refinement. Those herbivores in turn are highly food-plant specialized, and once caterpillars were collected, early instars (1-3) yielded more parasitoids than later instars. Glyptapanteles jimmilleri Arias-Penna, sp. nov. is the first egg-larval parasitoid recorded within the genus, though there may be many more since such natural history requires a more focused collection of eggs. The rate of hyperparasitoidism within the genus was approximately 4% and was represented by Mesochorus spp. (Ichneumonidae). A single case of multiparasitoidism was reported, Copidosoma floridanum Ashmead (Encyrtidae) and Glyptapanteles ilarisaaksjarvi Arias-Penna, sp. nov. both parasitoid species emerged from the caterpillar of Noctuidae: Condica cupienta (Cramer). Bodyguard behavior was observed in two Glyptapanteles species: G. howelldalyi Arias-Penna, sp. nov. and G. paulhansoni Arias-Penna, sp. nov. A dichotomous key for all the new species is provided. The numerous species described here, and an equal number already reared but not formally described, signal a far greater Glyptapanteles species richness in the Neotropics than suggested by the few described previously.
Central America, diversity, mtDNA, natural history, parasitoid wasps, South America
A species-level taxonomic review and host associations of Glyptapanteles (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) with an emphasis on 136 new reared species from Costa Rica and Ecuador
Diana Carolina Arias-Penna,corresponding author1 James B. Whitfield,1 Daniel H. Janzen,2 Winifred Hallwachs,3 Lee A. Dyer,4 M. Alex Smith,5 Paul D.N. Hebert,6 and Jose L. Fernandez-Triana7