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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:3789-75-1) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Cancer cells are known to release extracellular vesicles that often promote disease development and progression. The present study investigated the protein content and glycosylation pattern of ectosomes released in vitro by a human primary uveal melanoma Mel202 cell line. Ectosomes released by Mel202 cells were isolated from conditioned media using sequential centrifugation, and a nano-LC-MS/MS approach was used to determine their protein content. Subsequently, proteins from ectosomes, the whole cell extracts, and the membrane fractions were probed with a panel of lectins using Western blotting and flow cytometry to reveal characteristic glycan structures. As many as 2527 unique proteins were identified, and many of them are known to be involved in cancer cell proliferation and altered metabolism, tumor invasion, metastasis, or drug resistance. Lectin-based studies revealed a distinct glycosylation pattern between Mel202-derived ectosomes and the parental cell membranes. Selective enrichment of ectosomal proteins with bisected complex type N-glycans and α2,6-linked sialic acids may be significant for ectosome formation and sequestration. Differences in the surface glycosylation of Mel202 cells and ectosomes supports recent findings that the budding of ectosomes occurs within strictly determined fragments of the plasma membrane, and thus ectosomes contain a unique protein and glycan composition.
uveal melanoma, ectosomes, proteomics, glycosylation, extracellular vesicles
An Insight into the Proteome of Uveal Melanoma-Derived Ectosomes Reveals the Presence of Potentially Useful Biomarkers
Magdalena Surman,1 Dorota Hoja-Łukowicz,1 Sabina Szwed,1 Sylwia Kędracka-Krok,2 Urszula Jankowska,3 Magdalena Kurtyka,3 Anna Drożdż,4 Anna Lityńska,1 Ewa Stępień,4 and Małgorzata Przybyło1,*
Elucidation of the complete roster of signals required for myocardial specification is crucial to the future of cardiac regenerative medicine. Prior studies have implicated the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in the regulation of multiple aspects of heart development. However, our understanding of the contribution of Hh signaling to the initial specification of myocardial progenitor cells remains incomplete. Here, we show that Hh signaling promotes cardiomyocyte formation in zebrafish. Reduced Hh signaling creates a cardiomyocyte deficit, and increased Hh signaling creates a surplus. Through fate-mapping, we find that Hh signaling is required at early stages to ensure specification of the proper number of myocardial progenitors. Genetic inducible fate mapping in mouse indicates that myocardial progenitors respond directly to Hh signals, and transplantation experiments in zebrafish demonstrate that Hh signaling acts cell autonomously to promote the contribution of cells to the myocardium. Thus, Hh signaling plays an essential early role in defining the optimal number of cardiomyocytes, making it an attractive target for manipulation of multipotent progenitor cells.
Hedgehog, Cardiac progenitor specification, Cyclopamine, Heart development, Smoothened, Zebrafish
Hedgehog signaling plays a cell-autonomous role in maximizing cardiac developmental potential
Natalie A. Thomas,1 Marco Koudijs,2,3 Fredericus J. M. van Eeden,2,3 Alexandra L. Joyner,1,* and Deborah Yelon1,†
2014 Oct 29
Expression of the Aspergillus nidulans penicillin biosynthesis genes acvA and ipnA, encoding delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase and isopenicillin N synthetase, respectively, was analyzed. The intergenic region carrying the divergently oriented promoters was fused in frame in both orientations to Escherichia coli lacZ and E. coli uidA reporter genes. Each construct permits simultaneous expression studies of both genes. Transformants of A. nidulans carrying a single copy of either plasmid integrated at the chromosomal argB locus were selected for further investigations. Expression of both genes was directed by the 872-bp intergenic region. ipnA- and acvA-derived gene fusions were expressed from this region at different levels. ipnA had significantly higher expression than did acvA. Glucose specifically reduced the production of penicillin and significantly repressed the expression of ipnA but not of acvA gene fusions. The specific activities of isopenicillin N synthetase, the gene product of ipnA, and acyl coenzyme A:6-aminopenicillanic acid acyltransferase were also reduced in glucose-grown cultures.
Regulation of Aspergillus nidulans penicillin biosynthesis and penicillin biosynthesis genes acvA and ipnA by glucose.
A A Brakhage, P Browne, and G Turner