Schizandrin/Schisandrol A/Dibenzo[a,c]cycloocten-6-ol, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,2,3,10,11,12-hexamethoxy-6,7-dimethyl-/schizandra/1,2,3,10,11,12-Hexamethoxy-6,7-dimethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,c]annulen-6-ol/Schisandrol
Methanol; Ethanol; Acetone; Ethyl Acetate
576.7±50.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Schisandra chinensis has been used as an important component in various prescriptions in traditional Chinese medicine and, more recently, in Western-based medicine for its anti-hepatotoxic effect. The aim of this study was to develop a selective, rapid, and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for pharmacokinetic studies of schizandrin in rats. Liquid-liquid extraction was used for plasma sample preparation. A UHPLC reverse-phase C18e column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 2 μm) coupled with a mobile phase of methanol-0.1% formic acid (85:15, v/v) was used for sample separation. A triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer was used to detect the analytes in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The linear range of schizandrin in rat plasma was 5.0-1000 ng/mL (r² > 0.999), with a lower limit of quantification of 5 ng/mL. The method was validated with regard to accuracy, intra-day and inter-day precision, linearity, stability, recovery, and matrix effects in rat plasma, which were acceptable according to the biological method validation guidelines developed by the FDA. This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of 3 g/kg and 10 g/kg of Schisandra chinensis products, which yielded a maximum concentration of schizandrin of 0.08 ± 0.07 and 0.15 ± 0.09 μg/mL, respectively. A parallel study design was used to investigate the oral bioavailability of single compound of schizandrin and the herbal extract, the single compound of pure schizandrin (10 mg/kg, i.v.), pure schizandrin (10 mg/kg, p.o.), and the herbal extract of Schisandra chinensis (3 g/kg and 10 g/kg, p.o.) were given individually. The dose of Schisandra chinensis (3 g/kg) equivalent to schizandrin (5.2 mg/kg); the dose of Schisandra chinensis (10 g/kg) equivalent to schizandrin (17.3 mg/kg). The result demonstrated that the oral bioavailability of schizandrin was approximately 15.56 ± 10.47% in rats, however the oral bioavailability of herbal extract was higher than single compound. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of pure schizandrin after oral administration of its pharmaceutical industry products in rats.
bioavailability; liquid-liquid extraction method; pharmacokinetics; traditional Chinese medicine; ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
Pharmacokinetics of Schizandrin and Its Pharmaceutical Products Assessed Using a Validated LC-MS/MS Method.
Li CL1, Cheng YY2, Hsieh CH3,4,5, Tsai TH6,7,8,9.
2018 Jan 15
Schizandrin is a major bioactive constituent of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The objective of this study was to explore the potential effects of schizandrin on a cell model of myocarditis. The H9c2 cells were treated with schizandrin alone or in combination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), after which, cell survival, migration, and the release of inflammatory cytokines were assessed. Moreover, downstream effectors and signaling pathways were studied to reveal the possible underlying mechanism. As a result, LPS stimulation induced significant cell damage as cell viability was repressed and the apoptosis was induced. In the meantime, LPS promoted the release of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-8, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) while repressing the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Schizandrin could promote H9c2 cell migration and long-term treatment (7 days) enhanced cell viability. More interestingly, pretreatment with schizandrin attenuated LPS-induced cell loss and inflammatory response. Besides this, Smad3 was a downstream effector of schizandrin. The beneficial effects of schizandrin on the H9c2 cells were attenuated when Smad3 was overexpressed. Moreover, the silencing of Smad3 deactivated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathways. This study preliminarily demonstrated that schizandrin prevented LPS-induced injury in the H9c2 cells and promoted the recovery of myocardial tissues by enhancing cell viability and migration. Schizandrin conferred its beneficial effects possibly by downregulating Smad3 and inhibiting the activation of JNK and NF-κB pathways.
? 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
H9c2 cell; Smad3; lipopolysaccharide; myocarditis; schizandrin
Schizandrin protects H9c2 cells against lipopolysaccharide-induced injury by downregulating Smad3.
Zhang X1,2, Zhao Y3, Bai D1, Yuan X1, Cong S1.
Schizandrin B is extracted from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. This study evaluated the photoprotective effect of Schizandrin B on oxidative stress injury of the skin caused by UVB-irradiation and the molecular mechanism of the photoprotective effect of Schizandrin B, and we firstly found that Schizandrin B could block Cox-2, IL-6 and IL-18 signal pathway to protect damage of skin cells given by UVB-irradiation. In the research, we found that Schizandrin B can attenuate the UVB-induced toxicity on keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts in human body, and can outstandingly eliminated intracellular ROS produced by UVB-irradiation. These results demonstrate that Schizandrin B can regulate the function of decreasing intracellular SOD’s activity and increasing the expression level of MDA in HaCaT cells result from the guidance of UVB, and it markedly reduced the production of inflammatory factors such as Cox-2, IL-6 or IL-18, decreased the expression level of MMP-1, and interdicted degradation process of collagens in UVB-radiated cells. Therefore, skin keratinocytes can be effectively protected from UVB-radiated damage by Schizandrin B, and UVB-irradiation caused inflammatory responses can be inhibited by attenuating process of ROS generating.
COX-2; ROS; Schizandrin B; UVB-irradiation; collagen; photoaging
Protective effect of Schizandrin B against damage of UVB irradiated skin cells depend on inhibition of inflammatory pathways.
Gao C1, Chen H1,2, Niu C1, Hu J1, Cao B1.
2017 Jan 2
Schisandrin has various therapeutic effects on a range of medical conditions such as anti-asthmatic, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory effects.IC50 value:Target:in vitro: Sch inhibited the pro-fibrotic activity of TGF-β1 in AML12 cells; thus, it suppressed the accumulation of ECM proteins. Also, Sch inhibited the EMT as assessed by reduced expression of vimentin and fibronectin, and increased E-cadherin and ZO-1 in TGF-β1 induced AML12 cells. Sch reduced TGF-β1-mediated phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and Smad3/4 DNA binding activity. On the other hand, Sch reduced TGF-β1-induced ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt phosphorylation in the non-Smad pathway . the anti-inflammatory properties of schisandrin result from the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) release, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, which in turn results from the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities in a RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line .