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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a complex disease with multifactorial etiology. The presence of endothelial dysfunction constitutes an early risk factor for CVD in children. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression and represent a novel class of biomarkers and therapeutic targets; therefore, we examined whether the presence of endothelial dysfunction is associated with differential expression of plasma miRNAs in otherwise healthy children.
A total of 70 children (aged 5-10 years) were recruited and classified into two groups (normal endothelial function [NEF] and endothelial dysfunction). Time to peak postocclusive reperfusion (Tmax) was considered as the indicator of either normal endothelial function (NEF; Tmax < 45 s) or endothelial dysfunction (Tmax ≥ 45 s). Lipid profiles, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fasting glucose, and insulin were assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. miRNAs isolated from plasma were assayed with a custom human CVD array, followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction verification of candidates. In addition, bioinformatics approaches including combinatorial target prediction algorithms and gene ontology were applied. Results Three miRNAs that have been previously linked to cardiomyopathy, hsa-miR-125a-5p, hsa-miR-342-3p, and hsa-miR-365b-3p, were identified as potential biomarkers of children with endothelial dysfunction. The miRNA predicted gene targets revealed 31 common targets among all three putative candidate biomarker miRNAs and encompass three biologic pathways, including transforming growth factor-β signaling, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, and activin receptor-like kinase in cardiac myocytes. Conclusions Plasma miRNAs may be useful as potential screening tools for the presence of endothelial dysfunction in children and may reveal endothelial dysfunction-relevant target genes.
endothelium, microRNA, obesity
Circulating microRNAs as Potential Biomarkers of Endothelial Dysfunction in Obese Children
Abdelnaby Khalyfa, PhD, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, MD, Rakesh Bhattacharjee, MD, Ahamed A. Khalyfa, BSc, and David Gozal, MD, FCCP∗
The unicellular parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, is exposed to numerous adverse conditions, such as nutrient deprivation, during its life cycle stages in the human host. In the present study, we examined whether the parasite virulence could be influenced by glucose starvation (GS). The migratory behaviour of the parasite and its capability to kill mammalian cells and to lyse erythrocytes is strongly enhanced following GS. In order to gain insights into the mechanism underlying the GS boosting effects on virulence, we analyzed differences in protein expression levels in control and glucose-starved trophozoites, by quantitative proteomic analysis. We observed that upstream regulatory element 3-binding protein (URE3-BP), a transcription factor that modulates E.histolytica virulence, and the lysine-rich protein 1 (KRiP1) which is induced during liver abscess development, are upregulated by GS. We also analyzed E. histolytica membrane fractions and noticed that the Gal/GalNAc lectin light subunit LgL1 is up-regulated by GS. Surprisingly, amoebapore A (Ap-A) and cysteine proteinase A5 (CP-A5), two important E. histolytica virulence factors, were strongly down-regulated by GS. While the boosting effect of GS on E. histolytica virulence was conserved in strains silenced for Ap-A and CP-A5, it was lost in LgL1 and in KRiP1 down-regulated strains. These data emphasize the unexpected role of GS in the modulation of E.histolytica virulence and the involvement of KRiP1 and Lgl1 in this phenomenon.
Glucose Starvation Boosts Entamoeba histolytica Virulence
Ayala Tovy, 1 Rivka Hertz, 1 Rama Siman-Tov, 1 Sylvie Syan, 2 , 3 Daniela Faust, 2 , 3 Nancy Guillen, 2 , 3 and Serge Ankri 1 , *
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcripts longer than 200 nt that are involved in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). To determine whether lncRNAs are involved in stable angina pectoris (SAP), we analysed the expression profile of lncRNAs and mRNAs on a genome-wide scale in SAP of Uyghur population. Five pairs of SAP patients and healthy controls were screened by an Agilent microarray (human lncRNA + mRNA Array V4.0). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to validate the lncRNA expression levels in 50 SAP and 50 controls. Data analyses were performed using R and Bioconductor. A total of 1871 up- and 231 down-regulated lncRNAs were identified to be differentially expressed in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Microarray analysis results identified the lncRNAs NR_037652.1, ENST00000607654.1, ENST00000589524.1 and uc004bhb.3, which were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Among screened lncRNAs, the annotation result of their co-expressed mRNAs showed that the most significantly related pathways were the NF-κB signalling pathway, apoptosis and the p53 signalling pathway, while the main significantly related diseases were the cholesterol, calcium and coronary disease. Our study indicated that clusters of lncRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between SAP patients and matched controls. These lncRNAs may play a significant role in SAP development and could serve as biomarkers and potential targets for the future treatment of SAP.
large intervening non-coding RNA, microarray, stable angina pectoris
Expression profiles and potential functions of long non-coding RNA in stable angina pectoris patients from Uyghur population of China
Xin-Rong Zhou,1,* Ning Song,1,* Jun-Yi Luo,1,2 Hui Zhai,1 Xiang-Mei Li,1,2 Qian Zhao,1,2 Fen Liu,2 Xiao-Mei Li,1,2 and Yi-Ning Yang1,2
2019 Sep 30