This product is isolated and purified from the roots of Ligusticum chuanxiong hort
(3S)-3-Butyl-4,5-dihydro-2-benzofuran-1(3H)-one/1(3H)-Isobenzofuranone, 3-butyl-4,5-dihydro-, (3S)-/1(3H)-Isobenzofuranone, 3-butyl-4,5-dihydro-, (S)-/3-butyl-4,5-dihydro-3H-isobenzofuran-1-one/3-N-butyl-4,5-dihydrophthalide
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
368.1±11.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:62006-39-7) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Atherosclerosis is initiated by the local inflammation response to lipid deposition, and the most commonly administered antiatherogenic drugs are statins. Based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) evidence, we aimed to find effective therapeutic agents other than statins. A TCM, Suxiao Jiuxin Pill (SX), has been widely used in curing cardiovascular diseases for thirty years. In this paper, a combination of pharmacologic studies and RNA-Seq transcriptomics were employed to explore the pharmacodynamic advantages of SX over atorvastatin in the ApoE-/- mouse. 113 differentially expressed genes that were modulated by SX to a greater degree than atorvastatin were primarily involved in immunomodulation. The expression of BTK, AKT1, c-jun and CD137 was effectively regulated by SX with better effect than atorvastatin. Then a dual-luciferase reporter assay for NF-κB inhibition was applied to identify active components in SX. As a result, Senkyunolide A (Sen A) and Ligustilide (Lig), the key immunomodulatory ingredients in SX, were found to inhibit the expression of CD137 which is a diagnostic biomarker in atherosclerosis. It was further confirmed that Lig effectively suppressed the expression of AP-1 and NF-κB and the phosphorylation of AKT. Therefore, Lig achieved its CD137 inhibition through suppressing the expression of AP-1 and AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway, which partly explains the immunomodulation of SX in atherosclerosis. Above all, phthalides may be the primary components of SX improving immune and inflammation response in atherosclerosis.
Copyright © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.
Atherosclerosis; CD137; Ligustilide; Suxiao jiuxin pill; Transcriptomics
Phthalides, senkyunolide A and ligustilide, show immunomodulatory effect in improving atherosclerosis, through inhibiting AP-1 and NF-κB expression.
Lei W1, Deng YF1, Hu XY1, Ni JN2, Jiang M3, Bai G4.
Senkyunolide-A (SENKY) can be isolated from Apium graveolens seed oil obtained using supercritical CO2 extraction. SENKY and its parent compounds, the N-butyl phthalides, have been demonstrated to protect cells from CO poisoning, to prevent diabetes mellitus and to decrease cancer cell proliferation. This study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the effect of SENKY on epidermal function improvement, Malassezia effect control, scalp soothing and dandruff reduction via skin protection-related pathways.
DNA-array and proteomic studies were performed on human keratinocytes, sebocytes and skin explants to demonstrate SENKY activities. Two clinical evaluations were performed under dermatologist control on 106 volunteers, with greasy or dry scalp, experiencing dandruff, itching and redness. Volunteers tested a shampoo followed, or not, by a leave-on, containing SENKY, or their placebos. Dandruff severity and redness were scored on the scalp. Moisturization and sebum release were recorded using relevant measuring apparatus. Itching and scratching evaluations came from volunteers’ self-declarations.
DNA-array studies on keratinocytes showed a clear regulation of skin barrier functions and epidermis defence pathways. Upregulation of epidermal differentiation complex genes was observed. These preliminary observations were reinforced by immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry studies showing a significant increase of involucrin, filaggrin, loricrin, SPRR, LC3B and ceramide 2 productions. Tight-junctions and corneodesmosomes were significantly reinforced both in keratinocyte cultures (corneodesmosin, claudin, ZO-1) and in skin explants (desmoglein). DNA-array studies also demonstrated upregulation of genes involved in detoxification and anti-inflammation pathways. Proteomic studies revealed that hBD2 production was increased in keratinocytes in contact with SENKY, whereas IL-8, PGE-2 and TLR-9 releases were repressed as well as sebocyte lipid production. Clinical evaluations confirmed that after 3 weeks, SENKY significantly reduced dandruff intensity, redness, itching and scalp histamine content compared to placebo and beginning of treatment.
For the first time, SENKY has been shown to promote scalp homoeostasis by reinforcing barrier and defence functions at both gene and protein levels. It reduces irritation and redness in promoting detoxification and anti-inflammation pathways while controlling the niche of Malassezia. Applied on scalp, SENKY significantly reduces the formation of dandruff and soothes the scalp.
© 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Societe Francaise de Cosmetologie.
claim substantiation in vivo/in vitro; phytochemistry/plant biology; scalp care; skin repair/acne/rosacea/dandruff/striae
Reinforcement of barrier function and scalp homeostasis by Senkyunolide A to fight against dandruff.
Mondon P1, Ringenbach C1, Doridot E1, Genet V1.
Efficient transcytosis across the blood-brain-barrier is an important strategy for accessing drug targets within the central nervous system. Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. was used as a messenger drug to increase the distribution of drugs in brain tissue in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The present study investigates the transport of echinacoside (ECH) through MDCK-MDR1 cell and the effects of ligustilide (LIG), senkyunolide A (SENA) and senkyunolide I (SENI) in chuanxiong on its transport. The results indicated that the absorption of ECH was relatively poor in MDCK-MDR1cells, and was concentration dependent and not saturable. The P-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil could significantly increase the transport of ECH. It indicated that the transport mechanism might be passive diffusion as the dominating process with the active transportation mediated mechanism involved. The increased apparent permeability of ECH in A → B direction by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-Na2 suggested that ECH was absorbed via the paracellular route. The transport of ECH in A → B direction significantly increased when co-administrated with increasing concentrations of LIG, SENI and SENA. Western blot analysis and a decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance during the permeation experiment indicated that LIG, SENI and SENA had enhanced the transport of ECH in the BBB models attribute to down-regulate the expressions of claudin-5 and zonula occludens-1 expression.
Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Echinacoside; Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort; ZO-1; blood-brain barrier; claudin-5; volatile oil
The influence and mechanism of ligustilide, senkyunolide I, and senkyunolide A on echinacoside transport through MDCK-MDR1 cells as blood-brain barrier in vitro model.
Zheng Q1, Tang Y1, Hu PY1, Liu D1, Zhang D2, Yue P1, Guo Y1, Yang M1.