White crystalline powder
Fraxinus chinensis,Uraria crinita,Silybum marianum,Carpesium abrotanoides
flavobin/(2R,3R)-3,5,7-Trihydroxy-2-[(2R,3R)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-yl]-2,3-dihydro-4H-chromen-4-one/SILYBIN A/4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 2-[(2R,3R)-2,3-dihydro-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,4-benzodioxin-6-yl]-2,3-dihydro-3,5,7-trihydroxy-, (2R,3R)-/SILYBININ/[2R-[2a,3b,6(2R*,3R*)]]-2-[2,3-Dihydro-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,4-benzodioxin-6-yl]-2,3-dihydro-3,5,7-trihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one/silliver/Silibinin/Silybin/Silybum Substance E6/silybine/7c3mt//Silymrin/Dura-Silymarin
793.0±60.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:22888-70-6) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Silybin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which has been used in the treatment of liver diseases. In this study, we examined the protective effects and possible mechanisms of action of silybin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced lung injury and inflammation. Pre-treatment of mice with silybin significantly inhibited LPS-induced airway inflammatory cell recruitment, including macrophages, T cells and neutrophils. The production of cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in bronchoalveolar fluid and serum was also decreased following treatment with silybin. Elevated cytokine mRNA levels induced by LPS in lung tissue were all suppressed by silybin and lung histological alterations were also improved. In addition, experiments using cells indicated that silybin significantly decreased the mRNA levels and secretion of IL-1β and TNF-α in THP-1 cells. Moreover, the mechanisms responsible for these effects were attributed to the inhibitory effect of silybin on nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling and NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. The data form our study thus support the utility of silybin as a potential medicine for the treatment of acute lung injury‑associated inflammation and pathological changes. Silybin exerts protective effects against lung injury by regulating NF-κB signaling and the NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
Silybin Attenuates LPS-induced Lung Injury in Mice by Inhibiting NF-κB Signaling and NLRP3 Activation
Bo Zhang 1 , Bing Wang 2 , Shuhua Cao 2 , Yongqiang Wang 2 , Di Wu 1
Background and aim: Silybin is the major biologically active compound of silymarin, the standardized extract of the milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Increasing numbers of studies have shown that silybin can improve nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in animal models and patients; however, the mechanisms underlying silybin’s actions remain unclear.
Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet for 8 weeks to induce the NASH model, and silybin was orally administered to the NASH mice. The effects of silybin on lipid accumulation, hepatic fibrosis, oxidative stress, inflammation-related gene expression and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activities were evaluated by biochemical analysis, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, quantitative real-time PCR and western blot.
Results: Silybin treatment significantly alleviated hepatic steatosis, fibrosis and inflammation in MCD-induced NASH mice. Moreover, silybin inhibited HSC activation and hepatic apoptosis and prevented the formation of MDBs in the NASH liver. Additionally, silybin partly reversed the abnormal expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in NASH. Further study showed that the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway played important roles in the silybin-derived antioxidant effect, as evidenced by the upregulation of Nrf2 target genes in the silybin treatment group. In addition, silybin significantly downregulated the expression of inflammation-related genes and suppressed the activity of NF-κB signaling.
Conclusions: Silybin was effective in preventing the MCD-induced increases in hepatic steatosis, fibrosis and inflammation. The effect was related to alteration of lipid metabolism-related gene expression, activation of the Nrf2 pathway and inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway in the NASH liver.
Silybin Alleviates Hepatic Steatosis and Fibrosis in NASH Mice by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Involvement With the Nf-κB Pathway
Qiang Ou 1 , Yuanyuan Weng 2 , Siwei Wang 2 , Yajuan Zhao 1 , Feng Zhang 3 , Jianhua Zhou 4 5 , Xiaolin Wu 6 7
Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is a medicinal plant that has been used for thousands of years as a remedy for a variety of ailments. The main component of S. marianum fruit extract (silymarin) is a flavonolignan called silybin, which is not only the major silymarin element but is also the most active ingredient of this extract, which has been confirmed in various studies. This compound belongs to the flavonoid group known as flavonolignans. Silybin’s structure consists in two main units. The first is based on a taxifolin, the second a phenyllpropanoid unit, which in this case is conyferil alcohol. These two units are linked together into one structure by an oxeran ring. Since the 1970s, silybin has been regarded in official medicine as a substance with hepatoprotective properties. There is a large body of research that demonstrates silybin’s many other healthy properties, but there are still a lack of papers focused on its molecular structure, chemistry, metabolism, and novel form of administration. Therefore, the aim of this paper is a literature review presenting and systematizing our knowledge of the silybin molecule, with particular emphasis on its structure, chemistry, bioavailability, and metabolism.
bioavailability; chemistry; silybin; silymarin.
Silybin, a Major Bioactive Component of Milk Thistle (Silybum Marianum L. Gaernt.)-Chemistry, Bioavailability, and Metabolism
Michal Bijak 1
2017 Nov 10
Silibinin, an effective anti-cancer and chemopreventive agent, has been shown to exert multiple effects on cancer cells, including inhibition of both cell proliferation and migration.IC50 value:Target: anticancerin vitro: silibinin significantly induced the expression of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 (NAG-1) in both p53 wild-type and p53-null cancer cell lines, suggesting that silibinin-induced NAG-1 up-regulation is p53-independent manner.Silibinin up-regulates early growth response-1 (EGR-1) expression . silibinin induced cell death in human breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231. Silibinininduced cell death was attenuated by antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and Trolox, suggesting that the effect of silibinin was dependent on generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) . SIL treatment resulted in a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of HCC cell viability, SIL exhibited strong antitumor activity, as evidenced not only by reductions in tumor cell adhesion, migration, intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels and total antioxidant capability (T-AOC) but also by increases in the apoptotic index, caspase3 activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). SIL treatment decreased the expression of the Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD), RBP-Jκ, and Hes1 proteins, upregulated the apoptosis pathway-related protein Bax, and downregulated Bcl2, survivin, and cyclin D1. Notch1 siRNA (in vitro) or DAPT (a known Notch1 inhibitor, in vivo) further enhanced the antitumor activity of SIL, and recombinant Jagged1 protein (a known Notch ligand in vitro) attenuated the antitumor activity of SIL .in vivo: Topical application of silibinin at the dose of 9 mg/mouse effectively suppressed oxidative stress and deregulated activation of inflammatory mediators and tumorigenesis. The kidney cortex of vehicle-treated control OVE26 mice displayed greater Nox4 expression and twice as much superoxide production than cortex of silybin-treated mice. The glomeruli of control OVE26 mice displayed 35% podocyte drop out that was not present in the silybin-treated mice .