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Light and temperature are two particularly important environmental cues for plant survival. Carbon and nitrogen are two essential macronutrients required for plant growth and development, and cellular carbon and nitrogen metabolism must be tightly coordinated. In order to understand how the natural light/dark cycle regulates carbon and nitrogen metabolism in rice plants, we analyzed the photosynthesis, key carbon-nitrogen metabolites, and enzyme activities, and differentially expressed genes and miRNAs involved in the carbon and nitrogen metabolic pathway in rice shoots at the following times: 2:00, 6:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00, and 22:00. Our results indicated that more CO2 was fixed into carbohydrates by a high net photosynthetic rate, respiratory rate, and stomatal conductance in the daytime. Although high levels of the nitrate reductase activity, free ammonium and carbohydrates were exhibited in the daytime, the protein synthesis was not significantly facilitated by the light and temperature. In mRNA sequencing, the carbon and nitrogen metabolism-related differentially expressed genes were obtained, which could be divided into eight groups: photosynthesis, TCA cycle, sugar transport, sugar metabolism, nitrogen transport, nitrogen reduction, amino acid metabolism, and nitrogen regulation. Additionally, a total of 78,306 alternative splicing events have been identified, which primarily belong to alternative 5′ donor sites, alternative 3′ acceptor sites, intron retention, and exon skipping. In sRNA sequencing, four carbon and nitrogen metabolism-related miRNAs (osa-miR1440b, osa-miR2876-5p, osa-miR1877 and osa-miR5799) were determined to be regulated by natural light/dark cycle. The expression level analysis showed that the four carbon and nitrogen metabolism-related miRNAs negatively regulated their target genes. These results may provide a good strategy to study how natural light/dark cycle regulates carbon and nitrogen metabolism to ensure plant growth and development.
carbon, nitrogen, metabolism, gene, miRNA
A Natural Light/Dark Cycle Regulation of Carbon-Nitrogen Metabolism and Gene Expression in Rice Shoots
Haixing Li, Zhijun Liang, Guangda Ding, Lei Shi, Fangsen Xu, and Hongmei Cai*
Human studies on the use of metformin as host-directed therapy (HDT) for tuberculosis (TB) are rare. We performed a nationwide cohort study to evaluate the effect of metformin on mitigating the risk of active TB among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Among newly diagnosed DM patients identified in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, metformin users, defined on the basis of >90 cumulative defined daily doses within 1 year, and propensity-score-matched metformin nonusers were selected. The primary outcome was incident TB, identified using diagnostic criteria validated by real patient data at a medical center. Independent predictors were investigated using Cox regression analysis. Similar analysis was performed in a subpopulation without a history of hypertensive nephropathy and renal replacement therapy. A total of 88,866 metformin users and 88,866 propensity-score-matched nonusers were selected. Validation results showed that the TB diagnostic criteria had a sensitivity of 99.13% and specificity of 99.90%. During follow-up, 707 metformin users and 807 nonusers developed active TB. Metformin use was independently associated with a lower risk of incident TB (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.84 [0.74-0.96]). TB risk was lower in high-dose metformin users than in low-dose users (HR: 0.83 [0.72-0.97]). The effect of metformin remained when analysis was restricted in the subpopulation without renal function impairment. Newly diagnosed diabetic patients without contraindication should receive metformin as an anti-diabetic medication, with potential additional benefit against TB.
Metformin use is associated with a low risk of tuberculosis among newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients with normal renal function: A nationwide cohort study with validated diagnostic criteria
Ming-Chia Lee, Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Writing - original draft,1,2 Chen-Yuan Chiang, Conceptualization, Writing - review & editing,3,4,5 Chih-Hsin Lee, Data curation, Writing - original draft,3,4 Cheng-Maw Ho, Formal analysis,6 Chia-Hao Chang, Formal analysis,7 Jann-Yuan Wang, Conceptualization, Writing - review & editing,#8,* and Shih-Ming Chen, Data curation, Writing - review & editing#2,*
Ginkgo biloba is a medicinal plant which contains abundant endophytes and various secondary metabolites. According to the literary about the information of endophytics from Ginkgo biloba, Chaetomium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Penicillium and Charobacter were isolated from the root, stem, leaf, seed and bark of G. biloba. The endophytics could produce lots of phytochemicals like flavonoids, terpenoids, and other compounds. These compounds have antibacteria, antioxidation, anticardiovascular, anticancer, antimicrobial and some novel functions. This paper set forth the development of active extracts isolated from endophytes of Ginkgo biloba and will help to improve the resources of Ginkgo biloba to be used in a broader field.
Ginkgo biloba, Chinese medical plant, Endophytes, Secondary metabolites
Endophytes from Ginkgo biloba and their secondary metabolites
Zhihui Yuan,1,3 Yun Tian,1 Fulin He,corresponding author2,3 and Haiyan Zhoucorresponding author1