White crystalline powder
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Taurocholic acid (TCA), a conjugation of cholic acid with taurine, is one of the main bile acids that is elevated in liver disease. Considering the epidemiologic linkage of periodontal disease to liver disease, the question arises about the possible effect of elevated TCA levels on periodontal cells. To answer this question, gingival fibroblasts and human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line (HSC-2) were pretreated with interleukine1β (IL1β) and tumor necrosis factorα (TNFα) in the presence and absence of TCA. Also, mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7) were incubated with sterile-filtered human saliva with and without TCA. Inflammatory cytokines were measured by real time polynucleotide chain reaction (RT-PCR) and an immunoassay. The nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit was visualized by immunostaining. In pretreated gingival fibroblasts and HSC-2 cells, TCA considerably reduced the expression of IL1β, IL6, and IL8. In support of these observations, TCA lowered the saliva-induced expression of IL1α, IL1β and IL6 in RAW 264.7 cells. An immunoassay confirmed the capacity of TCA to diminish inflammation-induced expression of IL6 in gingival fibroblasts, HSC-2 and RAW 264.7 cells. Consistently, TCA blocked the nuclear translocation of p65 in fibroblasts. These findings suggest that TCA has anti-inflammatory activity in gingival fibroblasts, human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and macrophages in vitro.
cytokine; in vitro; liver cirrhosis; periodontitis; taurocholic acid.
Taurocholic acid lowers the inflammatory response of gingival fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and macrophages
Reza Talebian 1 2, Othman Hashem 1, Reinhard Gruber 1 3
Previous studies have shown that during severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) attacks, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is released in the colon. However, the roles played by H2S in regulating enteric nerves remain unclear. In this study, we examined the association between SAP-induced H2S release and loss of intestinal motility, and also explored the relevant mechanism in enteric nerve cells. A rat SAP model was constructed and enteric nerve cells were prepared. Intestinal mobility was evaluated by measuring the number of bowel movements at indicated time points and by performing intestinal propulsion tests. The production of inflammatory cytokines during a SAP attack was quantified by ELISA, and the levels of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) were examined by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. In vivo studies showed that PI3K/Akt/Sp1 signaling in enteric nerve cells was blocked, confirming the mechanism of endogenous H2S formation by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. Our results also showed that rats with SAP symptoms had reduced intestinal motility. Furthermore, PI3K/Akt/Sp1 signaling was triggered and CSE expression was up-regulated, and these changes were associated with H2S formation in the colon. In addition, propargylglycine reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines and suppressed the release of H2S. Enteric nerve cells that were incubated with LY294002 and transfected with a Sp1-knockdown vector displayed decreased levels of CSE production, which led to a decrease in H2S production. These results suggest that SAP symptoms suppressed the intestinal motility of rats via the release of H2S in enteric nerve cells, which was dependent on the inflammation-induced PI3K/Akt/Sp1 signaling pathway.
enteric nerve cells; hydrogen sulfide; inflammation; intestinal motility; severe acute pancreatitis.
Release of endogenous hydrogen sulfide in enteric nerve cells suppresses intestinal motility during severe acute pancreatitis
Ribin Liao 1, Liwei Xue 1, Zhanrong Qiang 1, Cheng Zhang 1, Ying Liu 1
2020 Jan 2
Krabbe disease, also known as globoid cell leukodystrophy, is a rare genetic neurodegenerative disease caused by a deficiency of the galactocerebrosidase enzyme. To understand the association status of human beta-galactocerebrosidase (hGALC) in solution, we employed analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC). Our AUC results show that hGALC has a tendency for reversible self-association. Self-association decreases as the concentration of sodium chloride increases from 50 to 500 mM. This indicates that ionic interactions are involved in the association. The association is also dependent on pH, and high order oligomerization decreases as the pH increases from 4.5 to 7.5. Taken together, our results indicate that hGALC has the highest tendency for oligomerization at physiological ionic strength and pH (lysosomal lumen). This is the first report describing the self-associating property of hGALC in solution.
Self-association of human beta-galactocerebrosidase: Dependence on pH, salt, and surfactant
Eunhee Lee 1 2, Nazila Salamat-Miller 1, Walter F Stafford 2, Katherine Taylor 1
2019 Dec 23;