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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:182234-25-9) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
SNARE-mediated membrane fusion is a pivotal event for a wide-variety of biological processes. SNAP-25, a neuron-specific SNARE protein, has been well-characterized and mouse embryos lacking Snap25 are viable. However, the phenotype of mice lacking SNAP-23, the ubiquitously expressed SNAP-25 homolog, remains unknown. To reveal the importance of SNAP-23 function in mouse development, we generated Snap23-null mice by homologous recombination. We were unable to obtain newborn SNAP-23-deficient mice, and analysis of pre-implantation embryos from Snap23 Δ/wt matings revealed that Snap23-null blastocysts were dying prior to implantation at embryonic day E3.5. Thus these data reveal a critical role for SNAP-23 during embryogenesis.
Deletion of SNAP-23 Results in Pre-Implantation Embryonic Lethality in Mice
Young Ho Suh, 1 , 2 , 3 Aki Yoshimoto-Furusawa, 5 Karis A. Weih, 1 Lino Tessarollo, 4 Katherine W. Roche, 2 Susan Mackem, 5 and Paul A. Roche 1 , *
Proteinuria is one of the well-known risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However the impact of proteinuria on the incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is unclear. In this study, we investigated the association between proteinuria detected using urine dipstick test and the risk of AF. A total of 18,201,275 individuals were analyzed, who had no prior AF and had received biennial health checkups provided by the National Health Insurance Service between 2005 and 2008 in Korea. Incidences of AF were ascertained through the end of 2015. During a mean follow-up of 9.6 years, a total of 324,764 (1.8%) developed AF (1.86 per 1,000 person-years). In Cox regression models, proteinuria was associated with an increased risk of AF: adjusted HR and 95% CI of AF occurrence were 1.13 (1.10-1.16), 1.34 (1.31-1.38), 1.53 (1.48-1.58), 1.82 (1.71-1.94), and 1.86 (1.61-2.16) in individuals with trace, 1+, 2+, 3+, and 4+ proteinuria, respectively, compared with those without proteinuria. The result was consistent even after additional adjustment for estimated glomerular filtration rate. In addition, the risk of AF further increased or decreased according to the follow-up dipstick test results. Thus, proteinuria measured with a dipstick test might be considered a potent risk factor for AF development.
Proteinuria Detected by Urine Dipstick Test as a Risk Factor for Atrial Fibrillation: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
Woo-Hyun Lim,1 Eue -Keun Choi,corresponding author2 Kyung-Do Han,3 Tae-Min Rhee,2 Hyun-Jung Lee,2 So-Ryoung Lee,2 Si-Hyuck Kang,4 Myung-Jin Cha,2 and Seil Oh2
Microspectrophotometric measurements were performed on 217 photoreceptors from cynomolgus, Macaca fascicularis, and rhesus, M. mulatta, monkeys. The distributions of cell types, for rods and blue, green, and red cones were: 52, 12, 47, and 44, respectively, for the cynomolgus, and 22, 4, 13, and 13 for the rhesus. Visual cells were obtained fresh (unfixed), mounted in various media (some containing 11- cis-retinal), and then located visually under dim red (650 nm) illumination. Absolute absorbance (A), linear dichroism (LD), and bleaching difference (BD) absorbance spectra were recorded through the sides of outer segments. The spectra were subjected to rigorous selection criteria, followed by digital averaging and Fourier transform filtering. Statistical methods were also applied to the accepted samples in the estimation of population means and variances. The wavelength of mean peak absorbance (lambda max) and the standard error at 95% certainty of the rod and blue, green, and red cone pigments in cynomolgus were 499.7 +/- 2.5, 431.4 +/- 4.2, 533.9 +/- 2.4, and 565.9 +/- 2.8 nm, respectively. The rhesus pigments were statistically indistinguishable from the cynomolgus, having lambda max of approximately 500, 431, 534, and 566 nm. Statistical tests did not reveal the presence of a lambda max subpopulation (i.e., anomalous pigments). The bandwidth of each alpha-band was determined in two segments, giving rise to the longwave half-density (LWHDBW), shortwave half-density (SWHDBW), and total half-density (THDBW) bandwidths. The LWHDBW was found to have the smallest variance. Both the LWHDBW and the THDBW showed linear dependence on the peak wavenumber (lambda max)-1 for the four macaque pigments.
Cynomolgus and rhesus monkey visual pigments. Application of Fourier transform smoothing and statistical techniques to the determination of spectral parameters
1987 May 1;