DMSO : ≥ 100 mg/mL (394.82 mM)
H2O : < 0.1 mg/mL (insoluble)
*"≥" means soluble, but saturation unknown.
482.1±55.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
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The proper treatment of swine wastewater with relatively high concentrations of antibiotics is very important to protect environmental safety and human health. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology shows much promise for removing pollutants and producing electricity simultaneously. A double-chamber MFC was investigated in this study. Synthetic swine wastewater with the addition of sulfonamides was used as the fuels in the anode chamber. Results indicated that COD could be effectively removed (>95%) and virtually not affect by the presence of sulfonamides in the MFC. A stable voltage output was also observed. The removal efficiencies of sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfadiazine (SDZ), and sulfamethazine (SMZ) in the MFC were in the 99.46-99.53%, 13.39-66.91% and 32.84-67.21% ranges, respectively. These totals were higher than those reported for a traditional anaerobic reactor. Hence, MFC revealed strong resistance to antibiotic toxicity and high potential to treat swine wastewater with antibiotics.
Biodegradation; Microbial fuel cell; Sulfonamide antibiotics; Swine wastewater.
Performance of microbial fuel cell for treating swine wastewater containing sulfonamide antibiotics
Dongle Cheng 1, Huu Hao Ngo 2, Wenshan Guo 1, Duujong Lee 3, Duc Long Nghiem 1, Jian Zhang 4, Shuang Liang 4, Sunita Varjani 5, Jie Wang 6
Wastewater treatment plants are not specially designed to remove pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), since these substances are toxic and bio-refractory. This paper aims to investigate and optimize the performance of the Trisep TS80 nanofiltration (NF) membrane for the removal of a mixture of two of the most detected PhACs in municipal wastewaters worldwide, sulfamethoxazole and diclofenac. Several NF tests were carried out to study the rejections of these contaminants both spiked in demineralized water, filtrated water taken from Mondego River and secondary effluent coming from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Among the several studied operating variables, pH was the one that most affected the contaminant rejection and membrane permeability. In the case of synthetic effluent, an applied pressure of 10 bar and pH 7 were determined as the best operating conditions, which allowed almost total chemical oxygen demand retention and a global contaminant rejection of 96.3% to be achieved. The application of different water matrices (river water and secondary municipal effluent) had no relevant impact on process efficiency. Vibrio fischeri luminescence inhibition tests revealed that treatment by nanofiltration reduced acute toxicity of all studied effluents.
Removal of a mixture of pharmaceuticals sulfamethoxazole and diclofenac from water streams by a polyamide nanofiltration membrane
Daniela Gomes 1, Mafalda Cardoso 1, Rui C Martins 1, Rosa M Quinta-Ferreira 1, Licinio M Gando-Ferreira 1
Background: An increased frequency of toxoplasma encephalitis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, has been reported in AIDS patients, especially in those with CD4+ T cell counts <100 cells/μL. Several guidelines recommend the combination of pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and leucovorin as the preferred regimen for AIDS-associated toxoplasma encephalitis. However, it is not commonly used in China due to limited access to pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine. The synergistic sulfonamides tablet formulation is a combination of trimethoprim (TMP), sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and is readily available in China. Considering its constituent components, we hypothesize that this drug may be used as a substitute for sulfadiazine and TMP-SMX. We have therefore designed the present trial, and propose to investigate the efficacy and safety of synergistic sulfonamides combined with clindamycin for the treatment of toxoplasma encephalitis.
Methods/design: This study will be an open-labeled, multi-center, prospective, randomized, and controlled trial. A total of 200 patients will be randomized into TMP-SMX plus azithromycin group, and synergistic sulfonamides plus clindamycin group at a ratio of 1:1. All participants will be invited to participate in a 48-week follow-up schedule once enrolled. The primary outcomes will be clinical response rate and all-cause mortality at 12 weeks. The secondary outcomes will be clinical response rate and all-cause mortality at 48 weeks, and adverse events at each visit during the follow-up period.
Discussion: We hope that the results of this study will be able to provide reliable evidence for the efficacy and safety of synergistic sulfonamides for its use in AIDS patients with toxoplasma encephalitis.
Trial registration: This study was registered as one of 12 clinical trials under the name of a general project at chictr.gov on February 1, 2019, and the registration number of the general project is ChiCTR1900021195. This study is still recruiting now, and the first patient was screened on March 22, 2019.
A study for precision diagnosing and treatment strategies in difficult-to-treat AIDS cases and HIV-infected patients with highly fatal or highly disabling opportunistic infections
Yao Li 1, Yan-Ming Zeng, Yan-Qiu Lu, Yuan-Yuan Qin, Yao-Kai Chen