Free radical scavengers and antioxidants from Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.). PUMID/DOI：15796587 J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Apr 6;53(7):2511-7. Methanol, MeOH/water extracts, infusion, and decoction of Cymbopogon citratus were assessed for free radical scavenging effects measured by the bleaching of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, scavenging of the superoxide anion, and inhibition of the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) and lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes. The extracts presented effect in the DPPH and superoxide anion assay, with values ranging between 40 and 68% and 15-32% at 33 and 50 microg/mL, respectively, inhibited lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes by 19-71% at 500 microg/mL and were inactive toward the XO at 50 microg/mL. Isoorientin, isoscoparin, Swertiajaponin, isoorientin 2' '-O-rhamnoside, orientin, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods. Isoorientin and orientin presented similar activities toward the DPPH (IC(50): 9-10 microM) and inhibited lipid peroxidation by 70% at 100 microg/mL. Caffeic and chlorogenic acid were active superoxide anion scavengers with IC(50) values of 68.8 and 54.2 microM, respectively, and a strong effect toward DPPH. Caffeic acid inhibited lipid peroxidation by 85% at 100 microg/mL.
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
761.3±60.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Lysosomal membrane proteins solubilized with octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside were reconstituted into proteoliposomes using acetone/ether-washed phospholipids from Escherichia coli. Assays of the quenching of acridine orange fluorescence showed that addition of both ATP and valinomycin to K+-loaded proteoliposomes led to the formation of a pH gradient that was acidic inside. ATP-driven acidification took place in the absence of permeant anions and was inhibited by the “protonophore”, carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, indicating that only H+ was transported actively. Proton translocation was readily blocked by N-ethylmaleimide (10 microM gave 50% inhibition of fluorescence quenching) but was unaffected by oligomycin (50 nM), orthovanadate (50 microM), or ouabain (0.5 mM); similarly, only N-ethylmaleimide affected ATP hydrolysis by proteoliposomes (88% inhibition). Other work showed that reconstitution of ATP-driven proton translocation required the presence of glycerol during protein solubilization and that optimal recovery depended on the use of both glycerol and phospholipid at this stage. We conclude that acidification of the lysosome is mediated by an ATPase capable of electrogenic H+ translocation without molecular coupling to other ionic species.
Reconstitution of the lysosomal proton pu
M P D'Souza, S V Ambudkar, J T August, and P C Maloney
The sunY gene of bacteriophage T4 contains a self-splicing group I intron. The ligated exons encode an open reading frame of 605 amino acids, whose inferred molecular mass is 68 kDa. However, none of the proteins made following T4 infection have been assigned to the sunY gene, and no mutations have been mapped to this locus. We show here that the primary product of the sunY gene is a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 64 kDa, which is processed to a protein approximately 4 kDa smaller. Unlike most other processed T4 proteins, cleavage occurs independently of both the T4 processing protease, the product of gene 21, and late phage protein synthesis. Insertional mutagenesis demonstrated that the sunY protein is not necessary for normal T4 growth under the conditions tested.
The product of the split sunY gene of bacteriophage T4 is a processed protein
A Zeeh and D A Shub
A study of simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (STLV-1) infection in a captive colony of 23 Macaca tonkeana macaques indicated that 17 animals had high human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) antibody titers. Genealogical analysis suggested mainly a mother-to-offspring transmission of this STLV-1. Three long-term T-cell lines, established from peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures from three STLV-1-seropositive monkeys, produced HTLV-1 Gag and Env antigens and retroviral particles. The first complete nucleotide sequence of an STLV-1 (9,025 bp), obtained for one of these isolates, indicated an overall genetic organization similar to that of HTLV-1 but with a nucleotide variability for the structural genes ranging from 7.8 to 13.1% compared with the HTLV-1 ATK and STLV-1 PTM3 Asian prototypes. The Tax and Rex regulatory proteins were well conserved, while the pX region, known to encode new proteins in HTLV-1 (open reading frames I and II), was more divergent than that in the ATK strain. Furthermore, a fragment of 522 bp of the gp21 env gene from uncultured peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNAs from five of the STLV-1-infected monkeys was sequenced. Phylogenetic trees constructed with the long terminal repeat and env (gp46 and gp21) regions demonstrated that this new STLV-1 occupies a unique position within the Asian STLV-1 and HTLV-1 isolates, being, by most analyses, related more to the Australo-Melanesian HTLV-1 topotype than to any other Asian STLV-1. These data raise new hypotheses on the possible interspecies viral transmission between monkeys carrying STLV-1 and early Australoid settlers, ancestors of the present day Australo-Melanesian inhabitants, during their migrations from the Southeast Asian land mass to the greater Australian continent.
Isolation and characterization of a new simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 from naturally infected celebes macaques (Macaca tonkeana): complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic relationship with the Australo-Melanesian human T-cell leukemia virus type 1.
F Ibrahim, G de The, and A Gessain