This product is isolated and purified from the herbs of Swertia bimaculata
5,8-Dihydroxy-3-methoxy-9-oxo-9H-xanthen-1-yl β-D-glucopyranoside/Sw-bromoacetophenone semicarbazone/2-bromo-1-phenyl-ethanone semicarbazone/bellidifolin 8-O-glucopyranoside/9H-Xanthen-9-one, 1-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-5,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-/2-Brom-1-phenyl-aethanon-semicarbazon/SWERTIANOLIN/phenacyl bromide semicarbazone
Xanthones from Gentiana campestris as new acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. PUMID/DOI：15490334 Planta Med. 2004 Oct;70(10):1011-4. In order to discover new acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, different plant extracts were screened by a previously established TLC bioautographic method. The methanol extract of Gentiana campestris leaves exhibited significant inhibition of AChE activity. A bioactivity-guided fractionation approach was undertaken to isolate the active components. Four xanthones, bellidin, bellidifolin, bellidin 8-O-beta-glucopyranoside (norSwertianolin), and bellidifolin 8-O-beta-glucopyranoside (Swertianolin), were found to be responsible for the anti-AChE activity effects. Bellidifolin showed similar activity to galanthamine in this enzyme assay. Voltammetric Behavior of Swertianolin and Its Scavenging to Free Radicals PUMID/DOI：无 Journal of Liaoning Normal University, 2003 , 26 (2) :171-173. The electrochemical behavior of Swertianolin and its scavenging to free radicals have been studied. A irreversible adsorpted reduction peak involving two electrons and two protons has been obtained in the medium of phosphate buffer(pH 8.2). The peak potential was at -1.61V(vs.SCE). Swertianolin showed that it can scavenge superoxide and hydroxyl radicals with the studying method of the autoxidation of Pyrogallol and afenton.
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Aim. The galactose single-point (GSP) test assesses functioning liver mass by measuring the galactose concentration in the blood 1 hour after its administration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of hemodialysis (HD) on short-term and long-term liver function by use of GSP test. Methods. Seventy-four patients on maintenance HD (46 males and 28 females, 60.38 ± 11.86 years) with a mean time on HD of 60.77 ± 48.31 months were studied. The GSP values were compared in two groups: (1) before and after single session HD, and (2) after one year of maintenance HD. Results. Among the 74 HD patient, only the post-HD Cr levels and years on dialysis were significantly correlated with GSP values (r = 0.280, P < 0.05 and r = −0.240, P < 0.05, resp.). 14 of 74 patients were selected for GSP evaluation before and after a single HD session, and the hepatic clearance of galactose was similar (pre-HD 410 ± 254 g/mL, post-HD 439 ± 298 g/mL, P = 0.49). GSP values decreased from 420.20 ± 175.26 g/mL to 383.40 ± 153.97 g/mL after 1 year maintenance HD in other 15 patients (mean difference: 19.00 ± 37.66 g/mL, P < 0.05). Conclusions. Patients on maintenance HD for several years may experience improvement of their liver function. However, a single HD session does not affect liver function significantly as assessed by the GSP test. Since the metabolism of galactose is dependent on liver blood flow and hepatic functional mass, further studies are needed.
Long-Term and Short-Term Effects of Hemodialysis on Liver Function Evaluated Using the Galactose Single-Point Test
Yi-Chou Hou, 1 Wen-Chih Liu, 2 Min-Tser Liao, 3 Kuo-Cheng Lu, 1 Lan Lo, 1 Heng-Chih Pan, 4 Chia-Chao Wu, 5 ,* Oliver Yoa-Pu Hu, 6 and Hung-Shang Tang 1 ,*
2014 Jul 10
Following incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI), descending drive is impaired, possibly leading to a decrease in the complexity of gait. To test the hypothesis that iSCI impairs gait coordination and decreases locomotor complexity, we collected 3D joint angle kinematics and muscle parameters of rats with a sham or an incomplete spinal cord injury.
12 adult, female, Long-Evans rats, 6 sham and 6 mild-moderate T8 iSCI, were tested 4 weeks following injury. The Basso Beattie Bresnahan locomotor score was used to verify injury severity. Animals had reflective markers placed on the bony prominences of their limb joints and were filmed in 3D while walking on a treadmill. Joint angles and segment motion were analyzed quantitatively, and complexity of joint angle trajectory and overall gait were calculated using permutation entropy and principal component analysis, respectively. Following treadmill testing, the animals were euthanized and hindlimb muscles removed. Excised muscles were tested for mass, density, fiber length, pennation angle, and relaxed sarcomere length.
Muscle parameters were similar between groups with no evidence of muscle atrophy. The animals showed overextension of the ankle, which was compensated for by a decreased range of motion at the knee. Left-right coordination was altered, leading to left and right knee movements that are entirely out of phase, with one joint moving while the other is stationary. Movement patterns remained symmetric. Permutation entropy measures indicated changes in complexity on a joint specific basis, with the largest changes at the ankle. No significant difference was seen using principal component analysis. Rats were able to achieve stable weight bearing locomotion at reasonable speeds on the treadmill despite these deficiencies.
Decrease in supraspinal control following iSCI causes a loss of complexity of ankle kinematics. This loss can be entirely due to loss of supraspinal control in the absence of muscle atrophy and may be quantified using permutation entropy. Joint-specific differences in kinematic complexity may be attributed to different sources of motor control. This work indicates the importance of the ankle for rehabilitation interventions following spinal cord injury.
Spinal cord injury, Complexity, Locomotion, Rat, Permutation entropy, Atrophy, Joint kinematics, Gait
Joint-specific changes in locomotor complexity in the absence of muscle atrophy following incomplete spinal cord injury
Brian K Hillen,1,2 Gary T Yamaguchi,3 James J Abbas,2 and Ranu Jungcorresponding author1,2
2013 Aug 15
The most widely utilized approaches for quantifying DNA methylation involve the treatment of genomic DNA with sodium bisulfite; however, this method cannot distinguish between 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). Previous studies have shown that 5hmC is enriched in the brain, although little is known about its genomic distribution and how it differs between anatomical regions and individuals. In this study, we combine oxidative bisulfite (oxBS) treatment with the Illumina Infinium 450K BeadArray to quantify genome-wide patterns of 5hmC in two distinct anatomical regions of the brain from multiple individuals.
We identify 37,145 and 65,563 sites passing our threshold for detectable 5hmC in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum respectively, with 23,445 loci common across both brain regions. Distinct patterns of 5hmC are identified in each brain region, with notable differences in the genomic location of the most hydroxymethylated loci between these brain regions. Tissue-specific patterns of 5hmC are subsequently confirmed in an independent set of prefrontal cortex and cerebellum samples.
This study represents the first systematic analysis of 5hmC in the human brain, identifying tissue-specific hydroxymethylated positions and genomic regions characterized by inter-individual variation in DNA hydroxymethylation. This study demonstrates the utility of combining oxBS-treatment with the Illumina 450k methylation array to systematically quantify 5hmC across the genome and the potential utility of this approach for epigenomic studies of brain disorders.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13059-016-0871-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Epigenetics, DNA methylation, Brain, 5-methylcytosine, 5mC, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5hmC, EWAS, Illumina Infinium 450K Beadarray, Cerebellum
Variation in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine across human cortex and cerebellum
Katie Lunnon,corresponding author Eilis Hannon, Rebecca G. Smith, Emma Dempster, Chloe Wong, Joe Burrage, Claire Troakes, Safa Al-Sarraj, Agnieszka Kepa, Leonard Schalkwyk, and Jonathan Mill
2016 Feb 16