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Program assertions have been recognized as a supporting tool during software development, testing, and maintenance. Therefore, software developers place assertions within their code in positions that are considered to be error prone or that have the potential to lead to a software crash or failure. Similar to any other software, programs with assertions must be maintained. Depending on the type of modification applied to the modified program, assertions also might have to undergo some modifications. New assertions may also be introduced in the new version of the program, while some assertions can be kept the same. This paper presents a novel approach for test case prioritization during regression testing of programs that have assertions using fuzzy logic. The main objective of this approach is to prioritize the test cases according to their estimated potential in violating a given program assertion. To develop the proposed approach, we utilize fuzzy logic techniques to estimate the effectiveness of a given test case in violating an assertion based on the history of the test cases in previous testing operations. We have conducted a case study in which the proposed approach is applied to various programs, and the results are promising compared to untreated and randomly ordered test cases.
Ali M. Alakeel*
Ali M. Alakeel*
Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are large groups of hydrophilic proteins with major role in drought and other abiotic stresses tolerance in plants. In-depth study and characterization of LEA protein families have been carried out in other plants, but not in upland cotton. The main aim of this research work was to characterize the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein families and to carry out gene expression analysis to determine their potential role in drought stress tolerance in upland cotton. Increased cotton production in the face of declining precipitation and availability of fresh water for agriculture use is the focus for breeders, cotton being the backbone of textile industries and a cash crop for many countries globally.
In this work, a total of 242, 136 and 142 LEA genes were identified in G. hirsutum, G. arboreum and G. raimondii respectively. The identified genes were classified into eight groups based on their conserved domain and phylogenetic tree analysis. LEA 2 were the most abundant, this could be attributed to their hydrophobic character. Upland cotton LEA genes have fewer introns and are distributed in all chromosomes. Majority of the duplicated LEA genes were segmental. Syntenic analysis showed that greater percentages of LEA genes are conserved. Segmental gene duplication played a key role in the expansion of LEA genes. Sixty three miRNAs were found to target 89 genes, such as miR164, ghr-miR394 among others. Gene ontology analysis revealed that LEA genes are involved in desiccation and defense responses. Almost all the LEA genes in their promoters contained ABRE, MBS, W-Box and TAC-elements, functionally known to be involved in drought stress and other stress responses. Majority of the LEA genes were involved in secretory pathways. Expression profile analysis indicated that most of the LEA genes were highly expressed in drought tolerant cultivars Gossypium tomentosum as opposed to drought susceptible, G. hirsutum. The tolerant genotypes have a greater ability to modulate genes under drought stress than the more susceptible upland cotton cultivars.
The finding provides comprehensive information on LEA genes in upland cotton, G. hirsutum and possible function in plants under drought stress.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (10.1186/s12863-017-0596-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Cotton (Gossypium spp), Identification, LEA proteins, miRNAs, Gene ontology, Gene expression, Genome, Drought
Characterization of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins family and their role in drought stress tolerance in upland cotton
Richard Odongo Magwanga,1,2 Pu Lu,1 Joy Nyangasi Kirungu,1 Hejun Lu,1 Xingxing Wang,1 Xiaoyan Cai,1 Zhongli Zhou,1 Zhenmei Zhang,1 Haron Salih,1 Kunbo Wang,corresponding author1 and Fang Liucorresponding author1
90 species of Euplectrus are treated: 55 newly described, all from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG), and 35 previously described species, of which 20 occur in ACG. Three of the previously described species (Euplectrus brasiliensis Ashmead, Euplectrus hircinus (Say), Euplectrus ronnai (Brethes)) have unknown status, owing to missing or severely damaged type material. The new species, all authored by C. Hansson, are: Euplectrus alejandrovalerioi, Euplectrus alexsmithi, Euplectrus alvarowillei, Euplectrus andybennetti, Euplectrus andydeansi, Euplectrus annettewalkerae, Euplectrus billbrowni, Euplectrus bobwhartoni, Euplectrus carlosarmientoi, Euplectrus carlrettenmeyeri, Euplectrus charlesmicheneri, Euplectrus charlesporteri, Euplectrus chrisdarlingi, Euplectrus chrisgrinteri, Euplectrus corriemoreauae, Euplectrus daveroubiki, Euplectrus davesmithi, Euplectrus davidwahli, Euplectrus dianariasae, Euplectrus donquickei, Euplectrus eowilsoni, Euplectrus garygibsoni, Euplectrus gavinbroadi, Euplectrus gerarddelvarei, Euplectrus henrytownesi, Euplectrus howelldalyi, Euplectrus hugokonsi, Euplectrus iangauldi, Euplectrus jacklonginoi, Euplectrus jesusugaldei, Euplectrus jimwhitfieldi, Euplectrus jjrodriguezae, Euplectrus johnheratyi, Euplectrus johnlasallei, Euplectrus johnnoyesi, Euplectrus josefernandezi, Euplectrus lubomirmasneri, Euplectrus markshawi, Euplectrus mikegatesi, Euplectrus mikeschauffi, Euplectrus mikesharkeyi, Euplectrus ninazitaniae, Euplectrus pammitchellae, Euplectrus paulhansoni, Euplectrus paulheberti, Euplectrus paulhurdi, Euplectrus philwardi, Euplectrus robbinthorpi, Euplectrus ronaldzunigai, Euplectrus roysnellingi, Euplectrus scottshawi, Euplectrus sondrawardae, Euplectrus sydneycameronae, Euplectrus victoriapookae, Euplectrus wonyoungchoi. The species are described or redescribed, and thoroughly and uniformly illustrated, and included in two identification keys, one for females and one for males. Lectotypes are designated for eight species: Euplectrus catocalae Howard (♂), Euplectrus junctus Gahan (♀), Euplectrus leucotrophis Howard (♂), Euplectrus marginatus Ashmead (♀), Euplectrus pachyscaphus Girault (♀), Euplectrus platyhypenae Howard (♂), Euplectrus semimarginatus Girault (♀), Heteroscapus ronnai Brethes (♂). One synonym is established: Euplectrus walteri Schauff is a junior synonym of Euplectrus testaceipes (Cameron). Brief image notes and host records are provided on the natural history of the wasps as well as the details of their morphology. Hosts are known for 74 Euplectrus species.
Chalcidoidea, Eulophinae, Euplectrini, DNA barcoding, Lepidoptera, gregarious caterpillar ectoparasitoids, tropical biodiversity, Nearctic, Neotropical
Integrative taxonomy of New World Euplectrus Westwood (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), with focus on 55 new species from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica
Christer Hansson,1,2 M. Alex Smith,3 Daniel H. Janzen,4 and Winnie Hallwachs4