Flavone, 3,3',5,7-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxy-/Quercetin 4'-methyl ether/Quercetin-4'-methylether/3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)chromen-4-one/4'-O-Methyl quercetin/4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-/TAMARIXETIN/4'-Methoxyquercetin/3,5,7-Trihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one/Flavone, 4'-methoxy-3,3',5,7-tetrahydroxy-/Quercetin-4'-methyl ether/Tamaraxetin/4'-Methoxy-3,3',5,7-tetrahydroxy-flavone
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
601.8±55.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:603-61-2) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
The Chinese medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. (Qinghao) is the only known source of the sesquiterpene artemisinin (Qinghaosu), which is used in the treatment of malaria. Artemisinin is a highly oxygenated sesquiterpene, containing a unique 1,2,4-trioxane ring structure, which is responsible for the antimalarial activity of this natural product. The phytochemistry of A. annua is dominated by both sesquiterpenoids and flavonoids, as is the case for many other plants in the Asteraceae family. However, A. annua is distinguished from the other members of the family both by the very large number of natural products which have been characterised to date (almost six hundred in total, including around fifty amorphane and cadinane sesquiterpenes), and by the highly oxygenated nature of many of the terpenoidal secondary metabolites. In addition, this species also contains an unusually large number of terpene allylic hydroperoxides and endoperoxides. This observation forms the basis of a proposal that the biogenesis of many of the highly oxygenated terpene metabolites from A. annua – including artemisinin itself – may proceed by spontaneous oxidation reactions of terpene precursors, which involve these highly reactive allyllic hydroperoxides as intermediates. Although several studies of the biosynthesis of artemisinin have been reported in the literature from the 1980s and early 1990s, the collective results from these studies were rather confusing because they implied that an unfeasibly large number of different sesquiterpenes could all function as direct precursors to artemisinin (and some of the experiments also appeared to contradict one another). As a result, the complete biosynthetic pathway to artemisinin could not be stated conclusively at the time. Fortunately, studies which have been published in the last decade are now providing a clearer picture of the biosynthetic pathways in A. annua. By synthesising some of the sesquiterpene natural products which have been proposed as biogenetic precursors to artemisinin in such a way that they incorporate a stable isotopic label, and then feeding these precursors to intact A. annua plants, it has now been possible to demonstrate that dihydroartemisinic acid is a late-stage precursor to artemisinin and that the closely related secondary metabolite, artemisinic acid, is not (this approach differs from all the previous studies, which used radio-isotopically labelled precursors that were fed to a plant homogenate or a cell-free preparation). Quite remarkably, feeding experiments with labeled dihydroartemisinic acid and artemisinic acid have resulted in incorporation of label into roughly half of all the amorphane and cadinane sesquiterpenes which were already known from phytochemical studies of A. annua. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that many of the highly oxygenated sesquiterpenoids from this species arise by oxidation reactions involving allylic hydroperoxides, which seem to be such a defining feature of the chemistry of A. annua. In the particular case of artemisinin, these in vivo results are also supported by in vitro studies, demonstrating explicitly that the biosynthesis of artemisinin proceeds via the tertiary allylic hydroperoxide, which is derived from oxidation of dihydroartemisinic acid. There is some evidence that the autoxidation of dihydroartemisinic acid to this tertiary allylic hydroperoxide is a non-enzymatic process within the plant, requiring only the presence of light; and, furthermore, that the series of spontaneous rearrangement reactions which then convert this allylic hydroperoxide to the 1,2,4-trioxane ring of artemisinin are also non-enzymatic in nature.
artemisinin, dihydroartemisinic acid, sesquiterpene, biosynthesis, Artemisia annua, phytochemistry, oxidation, allylic hydroperoxide
The Biosynthesis of Artemisinin (Qinghaosu) and the Phytochemistry of Artemisia annua L. (Qinghao)
Geoffrey D. Brown
A rise in antimicrobial resistance demands novel alternatives to antimicrobials for disease control and prevention. As an important component of innate immunity, host defense peptides (HDPs) are capable of killing a broad spectrum of pathogens and modulating a range of host immune responses. Enhancing the synthesis of endogenous HDPs has emerged as a novel host-directed antimicrobial therapeutic strategy. To facilitate the identification of natural products with a strong capacity to induce HDP synthesis, a stable macrophage cell line expressing a luciferase reporter gene driven by a 2-Kb avian β-defensin 9 (AvBD9) gene promoter was constructed through lentiviral transduction and puromycin selection. A high throughput screening assay was subsequently developed using the stable reporter cell line to screen a library of 584 natural products. A total of 21 compounds with a minimum Z-score of 2.0 were identified. Secondary screening in chicken HTC macrophages and jejunal explants further validated most compounds with a potent HDP-inducing activity in a dose-dependent manner. A follow-up oral administration of a lead natural compound, wortmannin, confirmed its capacity to enhance the AvBD9 gene expression in the duodenum of chickens. Besides AvBD9, most other chicken HDP genes were also induced by wortmannin. Additionally, butyrate was also found to synergize with wortmannin and several other newly-identified compounds in AvBD9 induction in HTC cells. Furthermore, wortmannin acted synergistically with butyrate in augmenting the antibacterial activity of chicken monocytes. Therefore, these natural HDP-inducing products may have the potential to be developed individually or in combinations as novel antibiotic alternatives for disease control and prevention in poultry and possibly other animal species including humans.
host defense peptides, antimicrobial peptides, defensins, high throughput screening, HDP inducers, wortmannin, host-directed antimicrobial therapy, antimicrobial resistance
High Throughput Screening for Natural Host Defense Peptide-Inducing Compounds as Novel Alternatives to Antibiotics
Wentao Lyu,1 Zhuo Deng,1 Lakshmi T. Sunkara,1,† Sage Becker,1 Kelsy Robinson,1 Robert Matts,2 and Guolong Zhang1,2,3,*
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
Naturally occurring splice variants of human CAR (hCAR), including hCAR-SV23 (insertion of amino acids SPTV) and hCAR-SV24 (APYLT), have been shown to be expressed in liver. However, little is known regarding how hCAR-SV23 and hCAR-SV24 are activated. Therefore, we investigated the mode of activation of these hCAR splice variants.
Cell-based reporter gene assays, including ligand-binding domain transactivation assays and coactivator recruitment assays, were conducted on cultured HepG2 cells transfected with various constructs and treated with 3-hydroxyflavone or a hydroxylated (galangin, datiscetin, kaempferol, morin, quercetin or myricetin) or methylated (isorhamnetin, tamarixetin, or syringetin) analogue.
Among the flavonols investigated, only 3-hydroxyflavone increased hCAR-SV23 and hCAR-SV24 activities. 3-Hydroxyflavone did not transactivate the ligand-binding domain of these isoforms or recruit steroid receptor coactivators (SRC-1, SRC-2, or SRC-3). By comparison, 3-hydroxyflavone, galangin, datiscetin, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin and tamarixetin activated hCAR-WT, whereas none of the flavonols activated hCAR-SV25 (both SPTV and APYLT insertions). The flavonols 3-Hydroxyflavone, galangin, quercetin and tamarixetin transactivated the ligand-binding domain of hCAR-WT, but only 3-hydroxyflavone recruited SRC-1, SRC-2 and SRC-3 to the receptor.
CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
hCAR-SV23 and hCAR-SV24 can be activated by a mechanism that does not involve the ligand-binding domain of the receptor or recruitment of SRC-1, SRC-2, or SRC-3. 3-Hydroxyflavone and its structural analogues activated hCAR in an isoform-selective and chemical-specific manner. Overall, our study provides insight into a novel mode of ligand activation of hCAR-SV23 and hCAR-SV24.
constitutive androstane receptor, splice variants, steroid receptor coactivators, flavonols, 3-hydroxyflavone
Indirect activation of the SV23 and SV24 splice variants of human constitutive androstane receptor: analysis with 3-hydroxyflavone and its analogues
Aik Jiang Lau and Thomas K H Chang