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PTH stimulates transcellular Ca2+ absorption in renal distal convoluted tubules. The effect of PTH on membrane voltage, the ionic basis of the change in voltage, and the relations between voltage and calcium entry were determined on immortalized mouse distal convoluted tubule cells. PTH (10(-8) M) significantly increased 45Ca2+ uptake from basal levels of 2.81 +/- 0.16 to 3.88 +/- 0.19 nmol min-1 mg protein-1. PTH-induced 45Ca2+ uptake was abolished by the dihydropyridine antagonist, nifedipine (10(-5) M). PTH did not affect 22Na+ uptake. Intracellular calcium activity ([Ca2+]i) was measured in cells loaded with fura-2. Control [Ca2+]i averaged 112 +/- 21 nM. PTH increased [Ca2+]i over the range of 10(-11) to 10(-7) M. Maximal stimulation to 326 +/- 31 nM was achieved at 10(-8) M PTH. Resting membrane voltage measured with the potential sensitive dye DiO6(3) averaged -71 +/- 2 mV. PTH hyperpolarized cells by 19 +/- 4 mV. The chloride-channel blocker NPPB prevented PTH-induced hyperpolarization. PTH decreased and NPPB increased intracellular chloride, measured with the fluorescent dye SPQ. Chloride permeability was estimated by measuring the rate of 125I- efflux. PTH increased 125I- efflux and this effect was blocked by NPPB. Clamping voltage with K+/valinomycin; depolarizing membrane voltage by reducing extracellular chloride; or addition of NPPB prevented PTH-induced calcium uptake. In conclusion, PTH increases chloride conductance in distal convoluted tubule cells leading to decreased intracellular chloride activity, membrane hyperpolarization, and increased calcium entry through dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels.
On the mechanism of parathyroid hormone stimulation of calcium uptake by mouse distal convoluted tubule cells.
F A Gesek, P A Friedman
At present, the application of CRISPR/Cas9 in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) has been mainly focused on knocking out target genes, and most site-directed mutagenesis has occurred at single cleavage sites and resulted in short deletions and/or insertions. However, the use of multiple guide RNAs for complex genome editing, especially the deletion of large DNA fragments in soybean, has not been systematically explored. In this study, we employed CRISPR/Cas9 technology to specifically induce targeted deletions of DNA fragments in GmFT2a (Glyma16g26660) and GmFT5a (Glyma16g04830) in soybean using a dual-sgRNA/Cas9 design. We achieved a deletion frequency of 15.6% for target fragments ranging from 599 to 1618 bp in GmFT2a. We also achieved deletion frequencies of 12.1% for target fragments exceeding 4.5 kb in GmFT2a and 15.8% for target fragments ranging from 1069 to 1161 bp in GmFT5a. In addition, we demonstrated that these CRISPR/Cas9-induced large fragment deletions can be inherited. The T2 ‘transgene-free’ homozygous ft2a mutants with a 1618 bp deletion exhibited the late-flowering phenotype. In this study, we developed an efficient system for deleting large fragments in soybean using CRISPR/Cas9; this system could benefit future research on gene function and improve agriculture via chromosome engineering or customized genetic breeding in soybean.
Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, CRISPR/Cas9, dual-sgRNA/Cas9 design, large fragment deletion, soybean
CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Deletion of Large Genomic Fragments in Soybean
Yupeng Cai,1,2,† Li Chen,1,2,† Shi Sun,2 Cunxiang Wu,2 Weiwei Yao,1,2 Bingjun Jiang,2 Tianfu Han,2 and Wensheng Hou1,2,*
Hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA)-induced murine erythroleukemia (MEL) differentiation is a multistep process. Commitment is the capacity to express terminal cell division and characteristics of the differentiated phenotype even after the cells are removed from culture with inducer. Culture of MEL cell line 745A.DS19 (DS19) with HMBA causes commitment to terminal differentiation after a latent period of about 10-12 hr. Previous studies have shown that during this latent period, HMBA causes a number of metabolic changes, including modulation in expression of certain protooncogenes. We now report the development of a MEL cell line (designated V3.17) derived from DS19 that is resistant to vincristine and is (i) markedly more sensitive to HMBA, (ii) induced to commitment without a detectable latent period, and (iii) resistant to the effects of phorbol ester and dexamethasone, which are potent inhibitors of HMBA-mediated DS19 differentiation. We suggest that this V3.17 MEL cell line may express a factor that circumvents HMBA-mediated early events, which prepare the cells for commitment to terminal differentiation.
Vincristine-resistant erythroleukemia cell line has marked increased sensitivity to hexamethylenebisacetamide-induced differentiation.
E Melloni, S Pontremoli, G Damiani, P Viotti, N Weich, R A Rifkind, and P A Marks