White crystalline powder
(2β,3β)-3-(β-D-Glucopyranosyloxy)-2,27-dihydroxyolean-12-ene-24,28-dioic acid/Olean-12-ene-23,28-dioic acid, 3-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2,27-dihydroxy-, (2β,3β)-/Tenuifolin/Olean-12-ene-24,28-dioic acid, 3-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2,27-dihydroxy-, (2β,3β)-/(2β,3β)-3-(β-D-Glucopyranosyloxy)-2,27-dihydroxyolean-12-ene-23,28-dioic acid
Tenuifolin, a secondary saponin from hydrolysates of polygalasaponins, counteracts the neurotoxicity induced by Aβ25-35 peptides in vitro and in vivo PUMID/DOI：25444865 Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2015 Jan;128:14-22. The protective effect of Tenuifolin on the cognitive impairments induced by Aβ25-35 injection was assessed using the Morris water maze and step-through passive avoidance tests. Tenuifolin and fallaxsaponin A were isolated from the HPS. Tenuifolin possessed neuroprotective effects against Aβ25-35-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells and significantly improved the cognitive deficits induced by the intrahippocampal injection of Aβ25-35 in mice. Thus, Tenuifolin is one of the active constituents of HPS against the neurotoxicity induced by Aβ25-35 peptides in vitro and in vivo. Effects of tenuifolin extracted from radix polygalae on learning and memory: a behavioral and biochemical study on aged and amnesic mice. PUMID/DOI：18289838 Phytomedicine. 2008 Aug;15(8):587-94. Improving effects of Tenuifolin, extracted from Radix Polygalae (RP), on learning and memory in aged and dysmnesia mice were determined using step-down type passive avoidance test or Y type maze trial. Oral administration of Tenuifolin (0.02, 0.04, 0.08 g/kgd(-1), for 15 d) evidently improved the latency and number of errors in aged and dysmnesia mice. The levels of cortical acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity and hippocampal neurotransmitters in aged mice given Tenuifolin (0.02, 0.04, 0.08 g/kgd(-1), for 15 d) were also investigated, and increased levels of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), decreased activity of AChE were found. However, serotonin (5-HT) had no significant difference from that of aged mice given distilled water. The evident improvement of learning and memory of aged mice is carried out by the effects of Tenuifolin on the three stages of memory process, that is, acquisition, consolidation and retrieval. This may do so by relatively increasing the levels of NE, DA in the hippocampus and by decreasing the activity of AChE in the cortex.
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Background: Radix Polygalae, the dried root of Polygala tenuifolia, has been extensively used as a traditional Chinese medicine for promoting intelligence and tranquilization. Polygalasaponins extracted from the root of P. tenuifolia possess evident anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic activities. Previous studies have reported that tenuifolin was a major constituent of polygalasaponins.
Purpose: The currently study aims to investigate the hypnotic effect and possible mechanism of tenuifolin in freely moving mice.
Design/methods: The hypnotic effects of tenuifolin (20, 40 and 80mg/kg, p.o.) were assessed by electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) analysis. Double-staining immunohistochemistry test was performed to evaluate the neuronal activity of sleep-wake regulating brain areas. High performance liquid chromatograph- electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) and ultrafast liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS) were used for the detection of neurotransmitters. Locomotor activity was measured by Open-field Test.
Results: Tenuifolin at doses of 40 and 80mg/kg (p.o.) significantly prolonged the total sleep time by increasing the amount of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, associated with the significant increase in the bouts of episodes respectively. After administration of tenuifolin, the cortical EEG power spectral densities during NREM and REM sleep were similar to that of natural sleep (vehicle) and thus compatible with physiological sleep. Double-immunohistochemistry staining test showed that tenuifolin increased the c-Fos positive ratios of GABAergic NREM sleep-promoting neurons in ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), cholinergic REM sleep-promoting neurons in laterodorsal tegmental area (LDT) and pontomesencephalic tegmental area (PPT) and decreased the c-Fos positive ratios in wake-promoting neurons (locus coeruleus (LC) and perifornical area (Pef)). Neurotransmitter detections revealed that tenuifolin significantly reduced the noradrenaline (NA) levels in LC, VLPO, PPT and LDT, elevated the GABA levels in VLPO, LC and Pef and increased the acetylcholine (Ach) levels in LDT and PPT. In addition, tenuifolin did not cause any change to locomotor activity.
Conclusion: Taken together, these results provide the first experimental evidence of the significant sleep-enhancing effect of tenuifolin in mice. This effect appears to be mediated, at least in part, by the activation of GABAergic systems and/or by the inhibition of noradrenergic systems. Moreover, this study adds new scientific evidence and highlights the therapeutic potential of the medicinal plant P. tenuifolia in the development of phytomedicines with hypnotic properties.
EEG; GABA; Hypnotic; Noradrenaline; Polygala tenuifolia; Tenuifolin.
Tenuifolin, a Saponin Derived From Radix Polygalae, Exhibits Sleep-Enhancing Effects in Mice
Qing Cao 1 , Yong Jiang 2 , Su-Ying Cui 1 , Peng-Fei Tu 2 , Yue-Mei Chen 2 , Xiao-Li Ma 2 , Xiang-Yu Cui 1 , Yuan-Li Huang 1 , Hui Ding 1 , Jin-Zhi Song 1 , Bin Yu 1 , Zhao-Fu Sheng 1 , Zi-Jun Wang 1 , Ya-Ping Xu 1 , Guang Yang 1 , Hui Ye 1 , Xiao Hu 1 , Yong-He Zhang 3
2016 Dec 15
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with damage to hippocampal neurons and declines in cognitive functions. The accumulation of amyloid peptides is regarded as a crucial event in the initiation of AD. The neurotoxicity induced by Aβ25-35 peptides was used to screen for cytoprotective factors in vitro, and the cognitive deficits induced by the injection of Aβ25-35 into the hippocampus were used to evaluate effect on learning and memory. Our previous study revealed that hydrolysate of polygalasaponins (HPS) clearly improve the cognitive deficits induced by the injection of Aβ25-35 in mice, but the potential active constituent of HPS remains unclear. The purposes of this study were to separate and purify the secondary saponins of HPS, screen for neuroprotective effects of the constituents in vitro, and to evaluate the effect of cognition in vivo. Various chromatographic methods were used to separate and purify the HPS. The neuroprotective effects were examined in Aβ25-35-damage-induced PC12 cells. The protective effect of tenuifolin on the cognitive impairments induced by Aβ25-35 injection was assessed using the Morris water maze and step-through passive avoidance tests. Tenuifolin and fallaxsaponin A were isolated from the HPS. Tenuifolin possessed neuroprotective effects against Aβ25-35-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells and significantly improved the cognitive deficits induced by the intrahippocampal injection of Aβ25-35 in mice. Thus, tenuifolin is one of the active constituents of HPS against the neurotoxicity induced by Aβ25-35 peptides in vitro and in vivo.
EEG; GABA; Hypnotic; Noradrenaline; Polygala tenuifolia; Tenuifolin.
Tenuifolin, a Secondary Saponin From Hydrolysates of Polygalasaponins, Counteracts the Neurotoxicity Induced by Aβ25-35 Peptides in Vitro and in Vivo
Ya-min Liu 1 , Zong-yang Li 1 , Han Hu 2 , Shu-ping Xu 3 , Qi Chang 3 , Yong-hong Liao 1 , Rui-le Pan 4 , Xin-min Liu 5
Aim: Previous studies have shown that tenuigenin, a crude extract of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. that is commonly used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for memory loss, can reduce the secretion of Abeta from cultured cells. However, the mechanism underlying this effect and the active compound derived from tenuigenin is unknown. In this study, a purified component of tenuigenin, tenuifolin, was examined and revealed to be an effective compound in vitro.
Methods: Abeta secretion from three sets of COS-7 cells, each carrying a plasmid expressing a different form of APP was examined following the treatment with tenuifolin. Initially, tenuifolin was determined to have no inherent toxicity to either the transfected or wild type cells at the effective concentrations. Cells were then treated with 0.5-2.0 microg mL(-1) tenuifolin for 12 h and their media were examined via an ELISA for Abeta1-40 and Abeta-42.
Results: We found that treatment with 2.0 microg mL(-1) tenuifolin significantly decreased Abeta secretion from COS-7 cells without altering the ratio of Abeta1-40 and Abeta-42. This effect is most probably due to inhibition of the beta-site APP cleaving enzyme as Abeta secretion was not inhibited from cells expressing the C99 fragment.
Conclusion: Tenuifolin is an effective compound from tenuigenin. We believe that this finding should lead the way for future experiments to determine the exact mechanism for tenuifolin’s effect on Abeta secretion.
Tenuifolin, an Extract Derived From Tenuigenin, Inhibits Amyloid-Beta Secretion in Vitro
J Lv 1 , H Jia, Y Jiang, Y Ruan, Z Liu, W Yue, K Beyreuther, P Tu, D Zhang