Soluble to 3 mM in acidic buffer (pH 4.8)
702.6±70.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:4368-28-9) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Red-spotted newts, Notophthalmus viridescens, contain tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogue 6-epiTTX in variable concentrations. In a follow-up study, newts were sampled from a pond in Pennsylvania, USA, in 2010, 2014, and 2018. Their toxin levels were assayed by liquid-chromatography-fluorescence detection (LC-FLD), and assessment of their infection with endoparasites such as nematodes and helminths was performed by histological examination of internal organs. In the 2010 and 2014 samples, average prevalence of parasite infection was 53 and 60%, respectively, but reached 100% in the 2018 sample, where metacercaria stages of the digenean trematode genus Australapatemon/Apatemon (family: Strigeidae) were predominant causing severe tissue damage in liver and kidney. Mean values of TTX and 6-epiTTX were not significantly different in parasitized or parasite-free newts over the study period, confirming previous findings that host toxicity and parasite load are not negatively correlated. Whereas the role of TTX in defence against predators is undisputed, its efficacy to prevent parasitic infections is less obvious. Toxin-resistance of various metazoan parasites may promote their widespread occurrence in poisonous newts.
6-epiTetrodotoxin; Newt; Notophthalmus viridescens; Parasitic infection; Tetrodotoxin.
Revisited - Failure of tetrodotoxin to protect red-spotted newts, Notophthalmus viridescens, from endoparasites
Dietrich Mebs 1, Mari Yotsu-Yamashita 2, Katharina Hartmann 3, Christine Elbert 3, Richard Zehner 3, Stefan W Toennes 3
2020 Apr 30
A fluorescence aptasensor for the highly specific and sensitive determination of tetrodotoxin was established with tetrodotoxin-aptamer as the recognition unit, berberine as the signal reporter and exonuclease I as the elimination agent for the background. Berberine has a weak fluorescence emission at 540 nm, and it can form the tetrodotoxin-aptamer/berberine complex, resulted in an increased fluorescence. After introducing exonuclease I, it can degrade the single strand oligonucleotides of tetrodotoxin-aptamer into the single nucleotide in the absence of tetrodotoxin, which lead to dramatic fluorescence quenching, and reduce the background signal of sensing system. Once tetrodotoxin is in the presence, tetrodotoxin-aptamer is converted into the stable neck ring conformation, which resists the degradation of exonuclease I and provides a more rigid micro-environment for the excited state of berberine, and then the strong fluorescence is observed. Based on the above properties, an ultrasensitive label-free fluorescence aptasensor for tetrodotoxin is established. The fluorescence aptasensor shows good analytical performance with the linear increase of fluorescence intensity at the tetrodotoxin concentration from 0.030 nM to 6.0 × 103 nM. The detection limit of 11.0 pM is much lower than that of other reported sensor methods.
Exonuclease I; Fluorescence aptasensor; Label-free; Tetrodotoxin.
Exonuclease I-assisted fluorescence aptasensor for tetrodotoxin
Yifeng Lan 1, Guojie Qin 2, Yanli Wei 3, Li Wang 4, Chuan Dong 1
Tetrodotoxin (TTX), a potent neurotoxin, is found in various phylogenetically diverse taxa. In marine environments, the pufferfish is at the top of the food chain among TTX-bearing organisms. The accumulation of TTX in the body of pufferfish appears to be of the food web that begins with bacteria. It is known that toxic pufferfishes possess TTX from the larval/juvenile stage. However, the source of the TTX is unknown because the maternally sourced TTX is extremely small in quantity. Therefore, the TTX has to be obtained from other organisms or directly from the environment. Here, we report evidence that the source of TTX for toxic fish juveniles including the pufferfish (Chelonodon patoca) and the goby (Yongeichthys criniger) is in the food organisms, as seen in their gut contents. Next generation sequencing analysis for the mitochondrial COI gene showed that the majority of the sequence recovered from intestinal contents of these toxic fishes belonged to the flatworm Planocera multitentaculata, a polyclad flatworm containing highly concentrated TTX from the larval stage. PCR specific to P. multitentaculata also showed that DNA encoding the planocerid COI gene was strongly detected in the intestinal contents of the goby and pufferfish juveniles. Additionally, the planocerid specific COI sequence was detected in the environmental seawater collected from the water around the sampling locations for TTX-bearing fish. These results suggest that planocerid larvae are the major TTX supplier for juveniles of TTX-bearing fish species.
Marine toxin; Pufferfish toxin; Tetrodotoxin (TTX); Toxification process; Toxin accumulation.
The planocerid flatworm is a main supplier of toxin to tetrodotoxin-bearing fish juveniles
Shiro Itoi 1, Tatsunori Sato 2, Mitsuki Takei 2, Riko Yamada 2, Ryuya Ogata 2, Hikaru Oyama 2, Shun Teranishi 2, Ayano Kishiki 2, Takenori Wada 2, Kaede Noguchi 2, Misato Abe 2, Taiki Okabe 2, Hiroyuki Akagi 2, Maho Kashitani 2, Rei Suo 2, Tomoko Koito 2, Tomohiro Takatani 3, Osamu Arakawa 3, Haruo Sugita 2