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Theaflavin has been proven to own strong antioxidative capacity; however, the molecular mechanism underlying its protective effect against cerebral ischemia‑reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to elucidate the neuroprotective effects of theaflavin on cerebral I/R injury and its underlying molecular mechanisms. To investigate the effects of theaflavin on neurological function, neurogenesis, and oxidative stress, experiments were performed using a cerebral I/R injury rat model, and neural stem cells (NSCs) were subjected to oxygen‑glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R). Further, the expression profiles of miRNA‑128‑3p and the regulatory function of nuclear factor (erythroid‑derived 2)‑related factor 2 (Nrf2) were evaluated in these models. We found that theaflavin treatment significantly reduced infarct volume and neuronal injury, and thus improved the impaired memory and learning ability. Furthermore, theaflavin treatment significantly enhanced the increase in NSC proliferation, reduction in the apoptotic rate and inhibition of oxidative stress. Mechanistically, theaflavin targeted miRNA‑128‑3p and further activated the Nrf2 pathway to reduce oxidative stress. In summary, theaflavin has a strong ability to attenuate cerebral I/R injury through miRNA‑128‑3p‑mediated recovery of the impaired antioxidant defense system, which suggests that it could be a potential drug candidate for ischemic stroke.
Theaflavin Attenuates Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Abolishing miRNA‑128‑3p‑mediated Nrf2 Inhibition and Reducing Oxidative Stress
Ronggang Li 1 , Xin Li 2 , Haibing Wu 3 , Zhikun Yang 4 , Li Fei 4 , Jianhong Zhu 1
It has been well established that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in ionizing radiation (IR)-induced hematopoietic injury. Theaflavin (TF), a polyphenolic compound from black tea, has been implicated in the regulation of endogenous cellular antioxidant systems. However, it remains unclear whether TF could ameliorate IR-induced hematopoietic injury, particularly the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) injury. In this study, we explored the potential role of TF in IR-induced HSC injury and the underlying mechanism in a total body irradiation (TBI) mouse model. Our results showed that TF improved survival of irradiated wild-type mice and ameliorated TBI-induced hematopoietic injury by attenuating myelosuppression and myeloid skewing, increasing HSC frequency, and promoting reconstitution of irradiated HSCs. Furthermore, TF inhibited TBI-induced HSC senescence. These effects of TF were associated with a decline in ROS levels and DNA damage in irradiated HSCs. TF reduced oxidative stress mainly by up-regulating nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and its downstream targets in irradiated Lineage-c-kit+ positive cells. However, TF failed to improve the survival, to increase HSC frequency and to reduce ROS levels of HSCs in irradiated Nrf2-/- mice. These findings suggest that TF ameliorates IR-induced HSC injury via the NRF2 pathway. Therefore, TF has the potential to be used as a radioprotective agent to ameliorate IR-induced hematopoietic injury.
Theaflavin Ameliorates Ionizing Radiation-Induced Hematopoietic Injury via the NRF2 Pathway
Xiaodan Han 1 , Junling Zhang 2 , Xiaolei Xue 3 , Yu Zhao 3 , Lu Lu 3 , Ming Cui 3 , Weimin Miao 4 , Saijun Fan 5
Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 2B1 has been reported in the apical membranes of the human small intestinal epithelium, where it contributes to the intestinal absorption of pharmacologically active drugs. To investigate the potential for OATP2B1-mediated drug-food interactions, the effects of several polyphenolic compounds on OATP2B1-mediated estrone-3-sulfate (E3S) transport were studied by using OATP2B1-expressing HEK293 cells. Our results showed that some compounds, especially theaflavin, were strong inhibitors of OATP2B1-mediated E3S uptake. Theaflavin showed a significantly higher uptake into the OATP2B1-expressing HEK293 cells than the control cells. The concentration dependence of the uptake of theaflavin was determined over a range of concentrations (0.5-100 μM) and the kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) of theaflavin uptake were found to be 5.12 ± 0.67 μM and 41.6 ± 1.3 pmol/mg protein/min, respectively. The OATP2B1-mediated theaflavin uptake was inhibited by known OATP2B1 substrates such as E3S, bromsulphthalein (BSP), dehydroepiandrosterone-3-sulfate (DHEAS), and fluvastatin. Our results indicate that theaflavin is a novel substrate of OATP2B1. The results of this study might be helpful to predict the potential OATP2B1-mediated drug-theaflavin interactions and to avoid undesirable clinical consequences.
Drug-food interaction; Intestinal absorption; Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 2B1; Polyphenol; Theaflavin.
Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptide (OATP) 2B1 Contributes to the Cellular Uptake of Theaflavin
Ayuko Kondo 1 , Katsuya Narumi 1 , Jiro Ogura 1 , Ai Sasaki 1 , Keisuke Yabe 1 , Taku Kobayashi 1 , Ayako Furugen 1 , Masaki Kobayashi 2 , Ken Iseki 3
Theaflavin is a suitable natural inhibitor against influenza A (H1N1) neuraminidase.