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Theobromine

$43

  • Brand : BIOFRON

  • Catalogue Number : BF-T3010

  • Specification : 98%

  • CAS number : 83-67-0

  • Formula : C7H8N4O2

  • Molecular Weight : 180.16

  • PUBCHEM ID : 5429

  • Volume : 100mg

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Catalogue Number

BF-T3010

Analysis Method

HPLC,NMR,MS

Specification

98%

Storage

2-8°C

Molecular Weight

180.16

Appearance

White crystalline powder

Botanical Source

Camellia sinensis

Structure Type

Nucleosiede

Category

Standards;Natural Pytochemical;API

SMILES

CN1C=NC2=C1C(=O)NC(=O)N2C

Synonyms

3,7-Dimethyl-xanthine/Diurobromine/1H-Purine-2,6-dione, 3,7-dihydro-3,7-dimethyl-/Teobromin/Theostene/2,6-Dihydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-purine/Theobromine/Diuretin/Thesal/3,7-Dimethyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione/3,7-dimethylpurine-2,6-dione/Theosalvose/Theobromin/3,7-dimethyl xanthine/Thesodate/5-26-13-00553 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)/Santheose/3,7-dihydro-3,7-dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione/5-26-13-00553

IUPAC Name

3,7-dimethylpurine-2,6-dione

Density

1.6±0.1 g/cm3

Solubility

Water

Flash Point

253.5±26.5 °C

Boiling Point

495.5±37.0 °C at 760 mmHg

Melting Point

345-350 °C

InChl

InChl Key

WGK Germany

RID/ADR

HS Code Reference

2939590000

Personal Projective Equipment

Correct Usage

For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.

Meta Tag

provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:83-67-0) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate

PMID

20859797

Abstract

The effects of theobromine in man are underresearched, possibly owing to the assumption that it is behaviourally inert. Toxicology research in animals may appear to provide alarming results, but these cannot be extrapolated to humans for a number of reasons. Domestic animals and animals used for racing competitions need to be guarded from chocolate and cocoa-containing foods, including foods containing cocoa husks. Research ought to include caffeine as a comparative agent, and underlying mechanisms need to be further explored. Of all constituents proposed to play a role in our liking for chocolate, caffeine is the most convincing, though a role for theobromine cannot be ruled out. Most other substances are unlikely to exude a psychopharmacological effect owing to extremely low concentrations or the inability to reach the blood-brain barrier, whilst chocolate craving and addiction need to be explained by means of a culturally determined ambivalence towards chocolate.

Title

Theobromine and the pharmacology of cocoa.

Author

Smit HJ1.

Publish date

2011

PMID

765793

Abstract

Theobromine and theophylline have a limited therapeutic use and in addition they occur in plants used in the preparation of a number of widely consumed drinks. Thus most of the population must be exposed to both compounds. Chromosome abnormalities are caused by both theobromine and theophylline in plant cells and in mammalian cells in culture, and both have anti-mitotic activity. While they are fairly potent mutagens in Escherichia coli and other lower organisms the rather scanty available evidence suggests that they are not mutagenic in mammals. The difference in mutagenic activity may be due to the reported inability of E. coli to demethylate these compounds, a process which occurs readily in mammals including man. The structure-activity relationships of these compounds are complex but the available evidence suggests that methylation at position 1 is the most important for both mutagenic activity and the anti-mitotic effect while methylation at position 3 is of most importance in the action on chromosomes.

Title

Theobromine and theophylline.

Author

Timson J.

Publish date

1975

PMID

32146317

Abstract

Osteoarthritis is one of the major causes of disability in elderly adults. Chondrocytes are responsible for the formation and remodeling of articular cartilage in joint tissue. The dysfunction of chondrocytes is a significant factor in the development of osteoarthritis. In the current study, we found that theobromine, a constituent of the cacao plant, possesses a preventive effect against interleukin (IL)-1β-induced chondrocyte dysfunction. Theobromine ameliorates IL-1β-induced production of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory mediators including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The presence of theobromine suppresses IL-1β-induced inducible nitro oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and cellular nitro oxide (NO) production. Theobromine also suppresses IL-1β-induced production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), as well as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-3 and MMP-13. Additionally, theobromine mitigates IL-1β-induced type II collagen degradation. Mechanistically, we show that theobromine inhibits IL-1β-induced IκBα activation, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) protein p65 accumulation, and transfected NF-κB promoter activity, indicating that theobromine suppresses the NF-κB pathway in chondrocytes. Collectively, our study demonstrates that the natural molecule theobromine has a protective effect to counter cytokine-induced chondrocyte dysfunction, implying its beneficial effect in the prevention of osteoarthritis.

Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS

Chondrocyte dysfunction; IL-1β; NF-κB; Theobromine

Title

Theobromine mitigates IL-1β-induced oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and degradation of type II collagen in human chondrocytes.

Author

Gu R1, Shi Y2, Huang W1, Lao C1, Zou Z1, Pan S1, Huang Z3.

Publish date

2020 Mar 5


Description :

Theobromine is a methylxanthine found in cacao beans which can inhibit adenosine receptor A1 (AR1) signaling.