(2z)-2-methyl-4-(9h-purin-6-ylamino)but-2-en-1-ol/2-Buten-1-ol, 2-methyl-4-(1H-purin-6-ylamino)-, (2E)-/cis-zeatin/trans-Zeatin (synthetic)/(2E)-2-Methyl-4-(1H-purin-6-ylamino)-2-buten-1-ol/2-Buten-1-ol, 2-methyl-4-(3H-purin-6-ylamino)-, (2Z)-/(E)-2-methyl-4-(7H-purin-6-ylamino)but-2-en-1-ol/oxyenadenine/(2E)-2-methyl-4-(7H-purin-6-ylamino)but-2-en-1-ol/ZEATIN TRANS ISOMER/(2Z)-2-Methyl-4-(3H-purin-6-ylamino)-2-buten-1-ol/2-Buten-1-ol, 2-methyl-4-(3H-purin-6-ylamino)-, (2E)-/6-(4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-2-butenylamino)purine/(E)-zeatin/(2E)-2-Methyl-4-(3H-purin-6-ylamino)-2-buten-1-ol/(2E)-2-Methyl-4-(1H-purin-6-ylamino)but-2-en-1-ol/trans-Zeatin/(2E)-2-Methyl-4-(9H-purin-6-ylamino)but-2-en-1-ol/2-Buten-1-ol, 2-methyl-4-(purin-6-ylamino)-, (E)-/N6-(4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)adenine/Zeatin/6-(4-Hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enylamino)purine (N6-(4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)adenine/Zeatine/(2Z)-2-Methyl-4-(1H-purin-6-ylamino)-2-buten-1-ol/TRANS ISOMER-ZEATIN/ZEATINRESEARCH GRADE/2-Buten-1-ol, 2-methyl-4-(7H-purin-6-ylamino)-, (2Z)-/6-(4-Hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enylamino)purine/2-Buten-1-ol, 2-methyl-4-(1H-purin-6-ylamino)-, (E)-/ZEATIN,CRYSTALLIZED
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Organ-to-organ signal transmission is essential for higher organisms to ensure coordinated biological reactions during metabolism and morphogenesis. Similar to organs in animals, plant organs communicate by various signalling molecules. Among them, cytokinins, a class of phytohormones, play a key role as root-to-shoot long-distance signals, regulating various growth and developmental processes in shoots1,2. Previous studies have proposed that trans-zeatin-riboside, a type of cytokinin precursor, is a major long-distance signalling form in xylem vessels and its action depends on metabolic conversion via the LONELY GUY enzyme in proximity to the site of action3-5. Here we report an additional long-distance signalling form of cytokinin: trans-zeatin, an active form. Grafting between various cytokinin biosynthetic and transportation mutants revealed that root-to-shoot translocation of trans-zeatin, a minor component of xylem cytokinin, controls leaf size but not meristem activity-related traits, whereas that of trans-zeatin riboside is sufficient for regulating both traits. Considering the ratio of trans-zeatin to trans-zeatin-riboside in xylem and their delivery rate change in response to environmental conditions, this dual long-distance cytokinin signalling system allows plants to fine-tune the manner of shoot growth to adapt to fluctuating environments.
Organ communication: Cytokinins on the move
Systemic transport of trans-zeatin and its precursor have differing roles in Arabidopsis shoots.
Osugi A1,2, Kojima M1, Takebayashi Y1, Ueda N1, Kiba T1, Sakakibara H1,2.
2017 Jul 24
Zeatin-binding protein (67 +/- 2 kDa) was isolated from the cytosol of the first leaf of 10-day-old barley plants. The protein fits to all requirements for a zeatin receptor: (i) it binds [3H]trans-zeatin reversibly and specifically, (ii) it is recognized by anti-idiotype antibodies from antiserum raised against trans-zeatin, (iii) in concert with 10(-8) M trans-zeatin it activates rRNA synthesis in vitro in a transcription elongation system containing chromatin from barley leaves associated with RNA-polymerase I. In the presence of trans-zeatin, the protein activates also RNA synthesis directed by RNA-polymerase I and RNA-polymerase II in isolated nuclei from barley leaves.
Receptor of trans-zeatin involved in transcription activation by cytokinin.
Kulaeva ON1, Karavaiko NN, Selivankina SYu, Zemlyachenko YaV, Shipilova SV.
1995 Jun 5
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), disturbing the metabolism of extracellular matrix (ECM), and causes the characteristic changes of photoaging in skin. Inhibition of induction of MMPs is suggested to alleviate photoaging induced by UV irradiation. Zeatin, purified from Zea mays, is a member of the cytokinin group of plant growth factors, the activity of which is attributed to its more stable trans form. In this study, we investigated the effect of trans-Zeatin on UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression in cultured human skin fibroblasts (HSFs) and studied the mechanisms of its actions. We found that pretreatment with trans-Zeatin significantly inhibits UVB-induced MMP-1 expression and c-Jun activation in a dose-dependent manner. We also observed that trans-Zeatin inhibits UVB-induced phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and p38 MAP kinases (MAPKs) dose-dependently. As expected, PD98059, an ERK inhibitor, SP600125, a JNK inhibitor and SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor effectively inhibit UVB-induced phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and p38 MAPKs, respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory mechanism of trans-Zeatin was further demonstrated in MMP-1 secretion using MAPK-specific inhibitors. PD98059, SP600125 and SB203580 suppressed UVB-induced MMP-1 secretion, which is consistent with the above results. Collectively, our results suggest that trans-Zeatin inhibits UVB-induced MMP-1 expression, which may be mediated by inhibition of ERK, JNK and p38 MAPKs signaling pathways in HSFs. Trans-Zeatin is a potential agent for the management of skin photoaging.
Trans-Zeatin inhibits UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression via MAP kinase signaling in human skin fibroblasts.
Yang B1, Ji C, Kang J, Chen W, Bi Z, Wan Y.