DMSO : 50 mg/mL (172.22 mM; Need ultrasonic)
H2O : 0.67 mg/mL (2.31 mM; Need ultrasonic)
405.2±55.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:738-70-5) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
In recent years, antibiotics have been used for human and animal disease treatment, growth promotion, and prophylaxis, and their consumption is rising worldwide. Antibiotics are often not fully metabolized by the body and are released into the aquatic environment, where they may have negative effects on the non-target species. This review examines the recent researches on eight representative antibiotics (erythromycin, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and amoxicillin). A detailed overview of their concentrations in surface waters, groundwater, and effluents is provided, supported by recent global human consumption and veterinary use data. Furthermore, we review the ecotoxicity of these antibiotics towards different groups of organisms, and assessment of the environmental risks to aquatic organisms. This review discusses and compares the suitability of currently used ecotoxicological bioassays, and identifies the knowledge gaps and future challenges. The risk data indicate that selected antibiotics may pose a threat to aquatic environments. Cyanobacteria were the most sensitive organisms when using standard ecotoxicological bioassays. Further studies on their chronic effects to aquatic organisms and the toxicity of antibiotic mixtures are necessary to fully understand the hazards these antibiotics present.
Antibiotic; Ecotoxicity; Environmental concentration; Human consumption; Veterinary use.
Occurrence and toxicity of antibiotics in the aquatic environment: A review
Pavla Kovalakova 1, Leslie Cizmas 2, Thomas J McDonald 2, Blahoslav Marsalek 1, Mingbao Feng 2, Virender K Sharma 3
A new series of trimethoprim (TMP) analogs containing amide bonds (1-6) have been synthesized. Molecular docking, as well as dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibition assay were used to confirm their affinity to bind dihydrofolate reductase enzyme. Data from the ethidium displacement test showed their DNA-binding capacity. Tests confirming the possibility of DNA binding in a minor groove as well as determination of the association constants were performed using calf thymus DNA, T4 coliphage DNA, poly (dA-dT)2 and poly (dG-dC)2. Additionally, the mechanism of action of the new compounds was studied. In conclusion, some of our new analogs inhibited DHFR activity more strongly than TMP did, which confirms, that the addition of amide bonds into the analogs of TMP increases their affinity towards DHFR.
DNA-binding agents; dihydrofolate reductase; molecular docking; trimethoprim analogs.
Trimethoprim: An Old Antibacterial Drug as a Template to Search for New Targets. Synthesis, Biological Activity and Molecular Modeling Study of Novel Trimethoprim Analogs
Agnieszka Wrobel 1, Dawid Maliszewski 1, Maciej Baradyn 2, Danuta Drozdowska 1
2019 Dec 27;
Background: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes herpes zoster. Pneumocystis jirovecii (PJ) also causes pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts. Although both cause opportunistic infections, it is rare to have a co-infection in a non-human immunodeficiency virus carrier.
Case presentation: An 84-year-old woman with hemolytic anemia referred because of acute respiratory failure. She had received prednisolone without PJ pneumonia prevention. She developed dyspnea and desaturation while eating, and thus was treated based on a presumptive diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia. Physical examination revealed a vesicular rash on the left side of her neck suggesting herpes zoster infection. Polymerase chain reaction of her sputum for PJ and VZV was positive, which confirmed a diagnosis of pneumonia due to PJ and VZV co-infection. Despite acyclovir and sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim administration, she died on hospital day 19.
Conclusions: Clinicians should suspect PJP when patients on systemic corticosteroids develop pneumonia and they have not received prophylactic treatment for PJP in non-HIV carriers. When such patients have a VZV rash, clinicians should aggressively seek signs of opportunistic infections. Our case hereby highlights the importance of recognizing the possibility of a VZV and PJ co-infection.
Coinfection; Immunocompromised hosts; Opportunistic infections; Pneumocystis jirovecii; Varicella-zoster virus.
A co-infection of varicella-zoster virus and Pneumocystis jirovecii in a non-HIV immunocompromised patient: a case report
Hirotada Muramatsu 1, Akira Kuriyama 2, Yoshiaki Anzai 3, Tetsunori Ikegami 1
2019 Dec 30