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Trimethyl phosphate

$43

  • Brand : BIOFRON

  • Catalogue Number : BF-T3003

  • Specification : 98%

  • CAS number : 512-56-1

  • Formula : C3H9O4P

  • Molecular Weight : 140.075

  • Volume : 100mg

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Catalogue Number

BF-T3003

Analysis Method

HPLC,NMR,MS

Specification

98%

Storage

2-8°C

Molecular Weight

140.075

Appearance

liquid

Botanical Source

Structure Type

Others

Category

SMILES

Synonyms

IUPAC Name

Density

1.2±0.1 g/cm3

Solubility

Flash Point

83.7±38.8 °C

Boiling Point

197.2±0.0 °C at 760 mmHg

Melting Point

-46 °C

InChl

InChl Key

WGK Germany

RID/ADR

HS Code Reference

2919900000

Personal Projective Equipment

Correct Usage

For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.

Meta Tag

provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:512-56-1) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate

PMID

32006839

Abstract

Phosphorus-containing flame retardants (PFRs) have been frequently detected in various environmental samples at relatively high concentrations and are considered emerging environmental pollutants. However, their biological effects and the underlying mechanism remain unclear, especially alkyl-PFRs. In this study, a battery of in vitro bioassays was conducted to analyze the cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment, DNA damage and the involved molecular mechanisms of several selected alkyl-PFRs. Results showed that alkyl-PFRs induced structural related toxicity, where alkyl-PFRs with higher logKow values induced higher cytotoxicity. Long-chain alkyl-PFRs caused mitochondrial and DNA damage, resulting from intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial superoxide overproduction; while short-chain alkyl-PFRs displayed adverse outcomes by significantly impairing mitochondria without obvious ROS generation. In addition, alkyl-PFRs caused DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest, as determined by flow cytometry, and transcriptionally upregulated key transcription factors in p53/p21-mediated cell cycle pathways. Moreover, compared to the control condition, triisobutyl phosphate and trimethyl phosphate exposure increased the sub-G1 apoptotic peak and upregulated the p53/bax apoptosis pathway, indicating potential cell apoptosis at the cellular and molecular levels. These results provide insight into PFR toxicity and the involved mode of action and indicate the mitochondria is an important target for some alkyl-PFRs.

KEYWORDS

Cell apoptosis; DNA damage; Mitochondrial impairment; Oxidative stress;

Title

In vitro oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment and G1 phase cell cycle arrest induced by alkyl-phosphorus-containing flame retardants

Author

Shengwu Yuan 1, Kongrui Zhu 2, Mei Ma 3, Xiaoshan Zhu 4, Kaifeng Rao 5, Zijian Wang 6

Publish date

2020 Jun

PMID

30419749

Abstract

A methyl group on an arene, despite its small size, can have a profound influence on biologically active molecules. Typical methods to form a methylarene involve strong nucleophiles or strong and often toxic electrophiles. We report a strategy for a new, highly efficient, copper and iodide co-catalyzed methylation of aryl- and heteroarylboronic esters with the mild, nontoxic reagent trimethylphosphate, which has not been used previously in coupling reactions. We show that it reacts in all cases tested in yields that are higher than those of analogous copper-catalyzed reactions of MeOTs or MeI. The combination of C-H borylation and this methylation with trimethylphosphate provides a new approach to the functionalization of inert C-H bonds and is illustrated by late-stage methylation of four medicinally active compounds. In addition, reaction on a 200 mmol scale demonstrates reliability of this method. Mechanistic studies show that the reaction occurs by a slow release of methyl iodide by reaction of PO(OMe)3 with iodide catalyst, rather than the typical direct oxidative addition to a metal center. The low concentration of the reactive electrophile enables selective reaction with an arylcopper intermediate, rather than nucleophilic groups on the arylboronate, and binding of tert-butoxide to the boronate inhibits reaction of the electrophile with the tert-butoxide activator to form methyl ether.

Title

Trimethylphosphate as a Methylating Agent for Cross Coupling: A Slow-Release Mechanism for the Methylation of Arylboronic Esters

Author

Zhi-Tao He 1, Haoquan Li 1, Alexander M Haydl 1, Gregory T Whiteker 2, John F Hartwig 1

Publish date

2018 Dec 12

PMID

30312655

Abstract

Following the voluntary phase-out of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) due to their environmental persistence and toxicity, the organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) are emerging replacements. However, there is limited information on the potential human health effects of the OPFRs. Zebrafish embryos are a viable vertebrate model organism with many advantages for high throughput testing toward human hazard assessment. We utilized zebrafish embryos to assess developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity, of eight replacement OPFRs: (triphenyl phosphate [TPHP], isopropylated phenyl phosphate [IPP], 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate [EHDP], tert-butylated phenyl diphenyl phosphate [BPDP], trimethyl phenyl phosphate [TMPP], isodecyl diphenyl phosphate [IDDP], tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate [TDCIPP], and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate [TCEP]) and two BFRs (3,3′,5,5′- tetrabromobisphenol A [TBBPA] and 2,2’4,4′-brominated diphenyl ether [BDE-47]). To determine potential effects on teratogenicity, embryos were exposed to flame retardants (FRs) at 4 h post fertilization (hpf) to 4 days post fertilization (dpf) and morphological alterations and corresponding survival were evaluated at 2 and 4 dpf. Internal concentrations were measured in larvae used in this assay by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Locomotor activity was assessed in larvae treated for 48 h (from 3 dpf to 5 dpf), followed by hepatotoxicity evaluation. Finally, alterations in heart rate and rhythmicity were assessed to determine cardiotoxicity in 48 hpf embryos exposed to compounds for 3 h. Results suggest that several OPFRs (BPDP, EHDP; IPP, TMPP; TPHP and TDCIPP) produced adverse effects in multiple target organs at concentrations comparable to the two BFRs. As these OPFRs have the capacity to disrupt an integrated vertebrate model, they potentially have the capacity to affect mammalian biology. Then, we compared the lowest effective levels (LEL) in zebrafish with estimated or measured human plasma concentrations using biomonitoring data (human plasma, breast milk, handwipe samples and house dust) and a high throughput toxicokinetic (HTTK) model. Results indicate that for some compounds, the nominal LELs were within the range of human exposures, while internal LELs in zebrafish are above internal exposures in humans. These findings demonstrate the value of the zebrafish model as a relevant screening tool and support the need for further hazard characterization of the OPFRs.

KEYWORDS

Cardiotoxicity; Developmental toxicity; Flame retardants; Hepatotoxicity; Internal concentration; Neurotoxicity; Zebrafish.

Title

Toxicity profiling of flame retardants in zebrafish embryos using a battery of assays for developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity toward human relevance

Author

Ainhoa Alzualde 1, Mamta Behl 2, Nisha S Sipes 2, Jui-Hua Hsieh 3, Aintzane Alday 1, Raymond R Tice 2, Richard S Paules 2, Arantza Muriana 1, Celia Quevedo 4

Publish date

Nov-Dec 2018


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