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Context: Neuroligin-1 (NLGN1) is a cell adhesion protein located on the excitatory postsynaptic membrane. β-Amyloid (Aβ)-induced neuroinflammation decreases NLGN1 expression through epigenetic mechanisms. Triptolide (T10) and tripchlorolide (T4) exert protective effects on synapses in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mice, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Objective: The effects of T10 and T4 on hippocampal NLGN1 expression in AD mice and the epigenetic mechanisms were assessed using chromatin immunoprecipitation and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation. Materials and methods: Sixty APP/PS1 transgenic mice were randomly divided into an AD model group, a T10-treated group and a T4-treated group (n = 20); 20 wild-type littermates served as the control group. APP/PS1 transgenic mice were intraperitoneally injected with T10 (0.1 mg/kg) and T4 (25 μg/kg) once per day for 60 days. NLGN1 expression was examined using western blotting and quantitative PCR. Results: T10 and T4 increased the levels of the NLGN1 protein and mRNA in hippocampus of AD mice. T10 and T4 inhibited the binding of HDAC2 (p< 0.01) and MeCP2 (p< 0.01 and p< 0.05, respectively) to the NLGN1 promoter, and cytosine methylation (1.2305 ± 0.1482/1.2554 ± 0.3570 vs. 1.6578 ± 0.1818, p< 0.01) at the NLGN1 promoter in the hippocampus of AD mice. T10 and T4 increased the level of acetylated histone H3 (0.7733 ± 0.1611/0.8241 ± 0.0964 vs. 0.5587 ± 0.0925, p< 0.01) at the NLGN1 promoter in the hippocampus of AD mice. Conclusions: T10 and T4 may increase hippocampal NLGN1 expression in AD mice through epigenetic mechanisms, providing a new explanation for the mechanism underlying the protective effects of T10 and T4 on synapses.
Alzheimer’s disease; DNA methylation; HDAC2; MeCP2; histone acetylation.
Epigenetic mechanisms underlying the effects of triptolide and tripchlorolide on the expression of neuroligin-1 in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mice
Xiaomei Lu 1 2, Baolin Yang 1, Hao Yu 3, Xiaoling Hu 1, Jing Nie 1, Bin Wan 1, Ming Zhang 2, Cheng Lu 1
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is a common pathophysiological mechanism that underlies cognitive decline and degenerative processes in dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases. Low cerebral blood flow (CBF) during CCH leads to disturbances in the homeostasis of hemodynamics and energy metabolism, which in turn results in oxidative stress, astroglia overactivation, and synaptic protein downregulation. These events contribute to synaptic plasticity and cognitive dysfunction after CCH. Tripchlorolide (TRC) is an herbal compound with potent neuroprotective effects. The potential of TRC to improve CCH-induced cognitive impairment has not yet been determined. In the current study, we employed behavioral techniques, electrophysiology, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and Golgi staining to investigate the effect of TRC on spatial learning and memory impairment and on synaptic plasticity changes in rats after CCH. Our findings showed that TRC could rescue CCH-induced spatial learning and memory dysfunction and improve long-term potentiation (LTP) disorders. We also found that TRC could prevent CCH-induced reductions in N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 2B, synapsin I, and postsynaptic density protein 95 levels. Moreover, TRC upregulated cAMP-response element binding protein, which is an important transcription factor for synaptic proteins. TRC also prevented the reduction in dendritic spine density that is caused by CCH. However, sham rats treated with TRC did not show any improvement in cognition. Because CCH causes disturbances in brain energy homeostasis, TRC therapy may resolve this instability by correcting a variety of cognitive-related signaling pathways. However, for the normal brain, TRC treatment led to neither disturbance nor improvement in neural plasticity. Additionally, this treatment neither impaired nor further improved cognition. In conclusion, we found that TRC can improve spatial learning and memory, enhance synaptic plasticity, upregulate the expression of some synaptic proteins, and increase the density of dendritic spines. Our findings suggest that TRC may be beneficial in the treatment of cognitive impairment induced by CCH.
Tripchlorolide May Improve Spatial Cognition Dysfunction and Synaptic Plasticity after Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion
Zhao-Hui Yao 1, Xiao-Li Yao 2, Shao-Feng Zhang 3, Ji-Chang Hu 4, Yong Zhang 3
2019 Feb 24
Due to its apparent rate-limiting function, BACE1 (β-secretase) appears to be a prime target for prevention of amyloid-β (Aβ) generation in brains with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The activity of BACE1 is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), a transcription factor binding site of the BACE1 promoter, indicating that PPARγ may be a potential target for AD treatment. Several studies have demonstrated that PPARγ activation is involved in the immunostimulation of amyloid-β precursor protein processing by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The present study found that tripchlorolide (T4), with a similar chemical structure to that of NSAIDs, decreased the levels of Aβ secreted in N2a-APP695 cells. T4 treatment reduced the mRNA and protein levels of BACE1 and the protein level of sAPPβ, a cleaved N-terminal fragment of APP by BACE1. The treatment also translocated PPARγ from cytoplasm to nuclear. Intriguingly, T4, like pioglitazone (a PPARγ agonist), suppressed the BACE1 activity in N2a-APP695 cells, which was attenuated by GW9662 (a PPARγ antagonist). These results indicate that T4 may be a PPARγ agonist to enhance the binding of nuclear PPARγ to the BACE1 promoter, which may in turn inhibit the transcription and translation of BACE1, suppress the activity of BACE1, and ultimately attenuate the generation of Aβ. Due to its capability to alter Aβ generation and to protect central neural system against the neurotoxicity of Aβ, T4 may serve as a promising agent in modulating Aβ-related pathology in Alzheimer’s disease.
Amyloid-β precursor protein; Amyloidogenesis; BACE1; N2a cells; PPARγ; Tripchlorolide.
Tripchlorolide Attenuates β-amyloid Generation via Suppressing PPARγ-Regulated BACE1 Activity in N2a/APP695 Cells
Nan Lin 1 2, Li-Min Chen 1 2, Xiao-Dong Pan 1 2, Yuan-Gui Zhu 1 2, Jing Zhang 1 2, Yan-Qing Shi 1 2, Xiao-Chun Chen 3 4