Boswellia carteri and Boswellia serrata (Indian olibanum)
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
577.3±50.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Specific immune unresponsiveness against a given set of histocompatibility antigens can be induced by immunization with autologous, antigen-specific T lymphoblasts. Such unresponsiveness can be transferred by lymphoid cells from autoblast-immunized donors to normal syngeneic recipients. The cells being most efficient in transferring the selective suppression are T lymphocytes from the spleen, especially if of Ly 1-2+3+ phenotype. By using such T lymphocytes we deem it likely that the actual underlying mechanism is one of actual transfer of autoanti-idiotypic killer T cells. In support for this view is the fact that such T cells endowed with exquisite specific, cytolytic reactivity towards autologous idiotype-positive T target cells exist in autoblast immune animals. Significant suppression may also be transferred with T cells of Ly 1+2-3- phenotype or with B cells. Here, we consider the suppressive mechanism to be one of production of autoanti-idiotypic antibodies. By using affinity fraction procedures, it was finally possible to prove that all T-cell suppressive activity resides in a population with true antigen-binding- specific receptors for the relevant idiotypes.
Induction of specific immune unresponsiveness with purified mixed leukocyte culture-activated T lymphoblasts as autoimmunogen. III. Proof for the existence of autoanti-idiotypic killer T cells and transfer of suppression to normal syngeneic recipients by T or B lymphocytes
1978 Jan 1;
Direct analysis of unassembled genomic data could greatly increase the power of short read DNA sequencing technologies and allow comparative genomics of organisms without a completed reference available. Here, we compare 174 chloroplasts by analyzing the taxanomic distribution of short kmers across genomes . We then assemble de novo contigs centered on informative variation. The localized de novo contigs can be separated into two major classes: tip = unique to a single genome and group = shared by a subset of genomes. Prior to assembly, we found that ∼18% of the chloroplast was duplicated in the inverted repeat (IR) region across a four-fold difference in genome sizes, from a highly reduced parasitic orchid  to a massive algal chloroplast , including gnetophytes  and cycads . The conservation of this ratio between single copy and duplicated sequence was basal among green plants, independent of photosynthesis and mechanism of genome size change, and different in gymnosperms and lower plants. Major lineages in the angiosperm clade differed in the pattern of shared kmers and de novo contigs. For example, parasitic plants demonstrated an expected accelerated overall rate of evolution, while the hemi-parasitic genomes contained a great deal more novel sequence than holo-parasitic plants, suggesting different mechanisms at different stages of genomic contraction. Additionally, the legumes are diverging more quickly and in different ways than other major families. Small duplicated fragments of the rrn23 genes were deeply conserved among seed plants, including among several species without the IR regions, indicating a crucial functional role of this duplication. Localized de novo assembly of informative kmers greatly reduces the complexity of large comparative analyses by confining the analysis to a small partition of data and genomes relevant to the specific question, allowing direct analysis of next-gen sequence data from previously unstudied genomes and rapid discovery of informative candidate regions.
Reference-Free Comparative Genomics of 174 Chloroplasts
Chai-Shian Kua, 1 , 2 Jue Ruan, 3 John Harting, 4 Cheng-Xi Ye, 5 Matthew R. Helmus, 1 , 6 Jun Yu, 3 and Charles H. Cannon 1 , 4 , * Jianwei Zhang, Editor
Germline coding variants have not been systematically investigated for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Here we report an exome-wide investigation using the Illumina Human Exome Beadchip with 943 PDAC cases and 3908 controls in the Chinese population, followed by two independent replicate samples including 2142 cases and 4697 controls. We identify three low-frequency missense variants associated with the PDAC risk: rs34309238 in PKN1 (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.48-2.12, P = 5.35 × 10−10), rs2242241 in DOK2 (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.50-2.27, P = 4.34 × 10−9), and rs183117027 in APOB (OR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.72-3.16, P = 4.21 × 10−8). Functional analyses show that the PKN1 rs34309238 variant significantly increases the level of phosphorylated PKN1 and thus enhances PDAC cells’ proliferation by phosphorylating and activating the FAK/PI3K/AKT pathway. These findings highlight the significance of coding variants in the development of PDAC and provide more insights into the prevention of this disease.
Exome-wide analysis identifies three low-frequency missense variants associated with pancreatic cancer risk in Chinese populations
Jiang Chang,#1 Jianbo Tian,#1 Ying Zhu,#1 Rong Zhong,#1 Kan Zhai,2,3 Jiaoyuan Li,1 Juntao Ke,1 QiangQiang Han,4 Jiao Lou,1 Wei Chen,1 Beibei Zhu,1 Na Shen,1 Yi Zhang,1 Yajie Gong,1 Yang Yang,1 Danyi Zou,1 Xiating Peng,1 Zhi Zhang,5 Xuemei Zhang,6 Kun Huang,7 Ming Yang,8 Li Wang,9 Chen Wu,corresponding author2 Dongxin Lin,corresponding author2 and Xiaoping Miaocorresponding author1