Cynomorium songaricum,Eriobotrya japonica,Rhododendron dauricum,Ligustrum lucidum,Myristica fragrans
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Ursolic acid altered muscle protein metabolism in normal and resting conditions after acute resistance exercise, suggesting that eating fruits rich in ursolic acid could enhance muscle protein synthesis and decrease muscle degradation. Aronia melanocarpa, a member of the family Rosaceae and native to North America and Eastern Canada, is rich in ursolic acid. In this study, we examined the effects of A. melanocarpa extract (AME) supplementation on the mTORC1 signaling pathway and muscle degradation-related factors in rats, both alone and in combination with resistance exercise.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into AME and normal chow (NOR) groups. AME group was fed chow providing a dose of 3 g/kg of AME and 115 mg/kg of ursolic acid for 7 days, whereas NOR rats were fed normal powder chow. The right gastrocnemius muscle of each animal was isometrically exercised (5 sets of ten 3-s contractions, with a 7-s interval between contractions and 3-min rest intervals between sets), while the left gastrocnemius muscle served as an internal control. Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to assess expression of factors involved in the mTORC1 signaling pathway and muscle degradation.
At 1 h after resistance exercise, phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was significantly increased by AME consumption. At 6 h after resistance exercise, AME consumption significantly increased the phosphorylation of Akt, p70S6K, rpS6, and AMPK. It also increased MAFbx expression. Furthermore, AME significantly increased the phosphorylation of p70S6K and rpS6 in response to resistance exercise. However, AME did not increase muscle protein synthesis (MPS) after resistance exercise. AME did not affect the expression of any of the mediators of protein degradation, with the exception of MAFbx.
Dietary AME enhanced mTORC1 activation in response to resistance exercise without increasing MPS. Moreover, it neither accelerated muscle protein degradation nor otherwise negatively affected protein metabolism. Further study is needed to clarify the effect of the combination of AME and chronic resistance training on muscle hypertrophy.
Aronia melanocarpa; Resistance exercise; Skeletal muscle; Ursolic acid; mTORC1
Dietary Aronia melanocarpa extract enhances mTORC1 signaling, but has no effect on protein synthesis and protein breakdown-related signaling, in response to resistance exercise in rat skeletal muscle.
Makanae Y1,2,3, Ato S3,4, Kido K3,5, Fujita S6,7.
2019 Dec 11
Controlling the blood glucose level is an effective method to reduce type 2 diabetes and prevent diabetes-related complications. Ursolic acid is a plant extract that can reduce postprandial hyperglycemia effectively. This study aimed to explore the inhibitory effect and interaction mechanism of ursolic acid against α-amylase and α-glucosidase.
In this study, the effect of ursolic acid on glycosidase was studied in vitro, in vivo, and in silico. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of ursolic acid on α-amylase and α-glucosidase was 0.482 ± 0.12 mg mL-1 and 0.213 ± 0.042 mg mL-1 , respectively. The results of enzymatic kinetics showed that ursolic acid inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity in a non-competitive manner. The fluorescence spectrum showed that the combination of ursolic acid and glycosidase caused the intrinsic fluorescence quenching of glycosidase. The observation of starch granules revealed that the activity of α-amylase was inhibited and the hydrolysis of starch granules was prevented in the presence of ursolic acid. Molecular docking results showed that ursolic acid bound to the inactive site of α-amylase and α-glucosidase through the formation of ursolic acid-glucosidase complex. Ursolic acid interacted with α-amylase and α-glucosidase mainly through hydrogen bonding. The postprandial hypoglycemic effect of ursolic acid in C57BL/6J mice showed that the high concentration of ursolic acid could quickly reduce postprandial blood glucose level.
Ursolic acid can be considered as a natural ingredient in functional foods to control postprandial blood glucose levels and prevent diabetes by delaying the digestion of starch in foods. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.
© 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.
interaction mechanism; ursolic acid; α-amylase; α-glucosidase
Inhibition of glycosidase by ursolic acid: in vitro, in vivo and in silico study.
Wang J1,2, Zhao J1, Yan Y1, Liu D1, Wang C2,3, Wang H1,2.
Abnormally upregulated cholesterol and lipid metabolism, observed commonly in multiple cancer types, contributes to cancer development and progression through the activation of oncogenic growth signaling pathways. Although accumulating evidence has shown the preventive and therapeutic benefits of cholesterol-lowering drugs for cancer management, the development of cholesterol-lowering drugs is needed for treatment of cancer as well as metabolism-related chronic diseases. Ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic terpenoid, suppresses cancer growth and metastasis, but the precise underlying molecular mechanism for its anti-cancer effects is poorly understood. Here, using sterol regulatory element (SRE)-luciferase assay-based screening on a library of 502 natural compounds, this study found that UA activates sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2). The expression of cholesterol biosynthesis-related genes and enzymes increased in UA-treated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. The UA increased cell cycle arrest and apoptotic death in HCC cells and reduced the activation of oncogenic growth signaling factors, all of which was significantly reversed by cholesterol supplementation. As cholesterol supplementation successfully reversed UA-induced attenuation of growth in HCC cells, it indicated that UA suppresses HCC cells growth through its cholesterol-lowering effect. Overall, these results suggested that UA is a promising cholesterol-lowering nutraceutical for the prevention and treatment of patients with HCC and cholesterol-related chronic diseases
Cholesterol; Hepatocellular carcinoma; SREBP2; Ursolic acid
Ursolic Acid Suppresses Cholesterol Biosynthesis and Exerts Anti-Cancer Effects in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.
Kim GH1,2, Kan SY3,4, Kang H5,6, Lee S7,8, Ko HM9, Kim JH10, Lim JH11,12.
2019 Sep 26
Ursolic acid(Bungeolic acid) is a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid, exerts anti-tumor effects and is an effective compound for cancer prevention and therapy. IC50 value:Target:in vitro: UA induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) and suppressed the protein expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in the dose-dependent manner . The combination of ursolic acid (0.5 μM) and leucine (10 μM) proved to be the most effective in promoting myogenic differentiation. The combination of ursolic acid and leucine significantly increased CK activity than treatment with either agent alone. The level of myosin heavy chain, a myogenic differentiation marker protein, was also enhanced by the combination of ursolic acid and leucine . Ursolic acid efficiently induced apoptosis, possibly via the downregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), the upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein and the proteolytic activation of caspase-3. Furthermore, the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase was increased by the administration of ursolic acid. In addition, ursolic acid significantly suppressed the invasive phenotype of the SNU-484 cells and significantly decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 . ursolic acid (UA) potently induces the apoptosis of gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Further mechanistic studies revealed that the ROCK1/PTEN signaling pathway plays a critical role in UA-mediated mitochondrial translocation of cofilin-1 and apoptosis .in vivo: UA treatment markedly improved the survival of septic rats, and attenuated CLP-induced lung injury, including reduction of lung wet/dry weight ratio, infiltration of leukocytes and proteins, myeloperoxidase activity, and malondialdehyde content. In addition, UA significantly decreased the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β, inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in the lung, which are involved in the productions of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 .