White crystalline powder
Desmodium styraci foLium,(Osb.)Merr./Constit. of the wood of Vitex lucens, and of lemons Citrus limon, and of quince pips (Cydonia oblonga), Urtica circularis and of many other plant spp
men-4-one/4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 6,8-di-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-/Apigenin 6,8-C-diglucoside/Vicenin II/Vicenin-2/isovitexin 8-C-β-glucoside/5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone 6,8-di-C-glucoside/5,7-Dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-6,8-bis[(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl]-4H-chromen-4-one
974.7±65.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:23666-13-9) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
The Insect taste system plays a central role in feeding behaviours and co-evolution of insect-host interactions. Gustatory receptors form the interface between the insect taste system and the environment. From genome and transcriptome sequencing we identified 197 novel gustatory receptor (GR) genes from the polyphagous pest Helicoverpa armigera. These GRs include a significantly expanded bitter receptor family (180 GRs) that could be further divided into three categories based on polypeptide lengths, gene structure and amino acid sequence. Type 1 includes 29 bitter Gr genes that possess introns. Type 2 includes 13 long intronless bitter Gr genes, while Type 3 comprises 131 short intronless bitter Gr genes. Calcium imaging analysis demonstrated that three Type 3 GRs (HarmGR35, HarmGR50 and HarmGR195) can be activated by a crude extract of cotton leaves. HarmGR195, a GR specifically and selectively expressed in adult tarsi, showed a specific response to proline, an amino acid widely present in plant tissues. We hypothesise that the expansion in the H. armigera GR family may be functionally tied to its polyphagous behavior. Understanding the molecular basis of polyphagy may provide opportunities for the development of new environmentally friendly pest control strategies.
Chemosensory receptors represent an interface between an insect and its chemical environment, mediating pivotal biological processes such as host finding, mate selection and choice of oviposition sites1. One gene family, the gustatory receptors (GRs), plays a central role in co-ordinating insect feeding behaviours1. Taste stimuli from the environment are recognized by GRs located on the dendrites of taste sensilla, which are distributed throughout the insect body1. Despite a growing body of knowledge about the insect taste system, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie taste signal recognition or how these signals affect feeding behaviours.
Insect Gr genes were first identified from the Drosophila melanogaster genome2. They have been classified into four clades: CO23, GR43a-like4, sugar5,6,7,8,9,10 and bitter11,12. To date, published research on GRs has been focused on Drosophila5,6,8,9,10,13,14,15,16,17, but with the increasing availability of genomic information from other insect species, such as Anopheles gambiae18, Tribolium castaneum19, Apis mellifera20, and Acyrthosiphon pisum21, GR research is being extended to a diverse range of species. The recent genome projects of four lepidopteran species, silkworm (Bombyx mori)11, Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus)22,23, Postman butterfly (Heliconius melpomene23 and Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella)24 provide invaluable resources for looking deeply into the lepidopteran gustatory system. 69 GRs were identified from B. mori11, 58 GRs were identified from D. plexippus22,23, 73 GRs were identified from H. melpomene23 and 69 GRs were identified from P. xylostella24. These four species are all specialist feeders: B. mori is a mulberry leave specialist11; D. plexippus consumes only plants in the milkweed family (Asclepiadacea)22; H. melpomene feeds on either Passiflora oerstedii or Passiflora menispermifolia23; while P. xylostella feeds exclusively on crucifers24. Therefore, the study on gustatory systems of these four species can shed light on the interactions between host plants and specialist herbivores but may be less relevant to generalist species like Helicoverpa armigera, which include significant pests of human agriculture. H. armigera itself is one of the most polyphagous lepidopteran pest species, with larvae that feed on numerous cultivated crops such as cotton, peanuts, soybeans and maize. H. armigera would be an ideal species for studying the gustatory receptor repertoire of a polyphagous lepidopteran species. Our hypothesis is that the gustatory system of H. armigera may have species-specific features that contribute to its robust polyphagy.
In this study, we utilized genome and transcriptome data from H. armigera and manually identified this species repertoire of Gr genes. We applied phylogenetic analysis, comparative gene expression, and topological and calcium imaging analyses to structurally and functionally characterize the GR repertoire, in the process uncovering a markedly expanded family of lepidopteran GRs.
Expansion of a bitter taste receptor family in a polyphagous insect herbivore
Wei Xu,1,2 Alexie Papanicolaou,3,* Hui-Jie Zhang,1 and Alisha Andersona,1
During the May-June 2016 International Cooperative Air Quality Field Study in Korea (KORUS-AQ), light synoptic meteorological forcing facilitated Seoul metropolitan pollution outflow to reach the remote Taehwa Research Forest (TRF) site and cause regulatory exceedances of ozone on 24 days. Two of these severe pollution events are thoroughly examined. The first, occurring on 17 May 2016, tracks transboundary pollution transport exiting eastern China and the Yellow Sea, traversing the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), and then reaching TRF in the afternoon hours with severely polluted conditions. This case study indicates that although outflow from China and the Yellow Sea were elevated with respect to chemically unperturbed conditions, the regulatory exceedance at TRF was directly linked in time, space, and altitude to urban Seoul emissions. The second case studied, occurring on 09 June 2016, reveals that increased levels of biogenic emissions, in combination with amplified urban emissions, were associated with severe levels of pollutions and a regulatory exceedance at TRF. In summary, domestic emissions may be causing more pollution than by trans-boundary pathways, which have been historically believed to be the major source of air pollution in South Korea. The case studies are assessed with multiple aircraft, model (photochemical and meteorological) simulations, in-situ chemical sampling, and extensive ground-based profiling at TRF. These observations clearly identify TRF and the surrounding rural communities as receptor sites for severe pollution events associated with Seoul outflow, which will result in long-term negative effects to both human health and agriculture in the affected areas.
Taehwa Research Forest: A receptor site for severe domestic pollution events in Korea during 2016
John T. Sullivan,1 Thomas J. McGee,1 Ryan M. Stauffer,1,2 Anne M. Thompson,1 Andrew Weinheimer,3 Christoph Knote,4 Scott Janz,1 Armin Wisthaler,5,6 Russell Long,7 James Szykman,7,8 Jinsoo Park,9 Youngjae Lee,9 Saewung Kim,10 Daun Jeong,10 Dianne Sanchez,10 Laurence Twigg,1,11 Grant Sumnicht,1,11 Travis Knepp,8,12 and Jason R. Schroeder13
2020 Jan 1.
Differing boundary/mixed-layer height measurement methods were assessed in moderately-polluted and clean environments, with a focus on the Vaisala CL51 ceilometer. This intercomparison was performed as part of ongoing measurements at the Chemistry And Physics of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (CAPABLE) site in Hampton, Virginia and during the 2014 Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) field campaign that took place in and around Denver, Colorado. We analyzed CL51 data that were collected via two different methods (BLView software, which applied correction factors, and simple terminal emulation logging) to determine the impact of data collection methodology. Further, we evaluated the STRucture of the ATmosphere (STRAT) algorithm as an open-source alternative to BLView (note that the current work presents an evaluation of the BLView and STRAT algorithms and does not intend to act as a validation of either). Filtering criteria were defined according to the change in mixed-layer height (MLH) distributions for each instrument and algorithm and were applied throughout the analysis to remove high-frequency fluctuations from the MLH retrievals. Of primary interest was determining how the different data-collection methodologies and algorithms compare to each other and to radiosonde-derived boundary-layer heights when deployed as part of a larger instrument network. We determined that data-collection methodology is not as important as the processing algorithm and that much of the algorithm differences might be driven by impacts of local meteorology and precipitation events that pose algorithm difficulties. The results of this study show that a common processing algorithm is necessary for LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR)-based MLH intercomparisons, and ceilometer-network operation and that sonde-derived boundary layer heights are higher (10-15% at mid-day) than LIDAR-derived mixed-layer heights. We show that averaging the retrieved MLH to 1-hour resolution (an appropriate time scale for a priori data model initialization) significantly improved correlation between differing instruments and differing algorithms.
Assessment of Mixed-Layer Height Estimation from Single-wavelength Ceilometer Profiles
Travis N. Knepp,1,2 James J. Szykman,3,4 Russell Long,3 Rachelle M. Duvall,3 Jonathan Krug,3 Melinda Beaver,3 Kevin Cavender,3 Keith Kronmiller,5 Michael Wheeler,5 Ruben Delgado,6 Raymond Hoff,6 Timothy Berkoff,2 Erik Olson,7 Richard Clark,8 Daniel Wolfe,9 David Van Gilst,10 and Doreen Neil2
2018 Apr 19.