MK-4/Menaquinones/Menatetrenone=Menaquinon-4/2-Methyl-3-(3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraen-1-yl)-1,4-naphthoquinone/1,4-Naphthalenedione, 2-methyl-3-(3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraen-1-yl)-/Vitamin K2/MENAQUINONE/MENAQUINONE 4
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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:11032-49-8) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
A Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium that produced yellow viscous colonies, designated FL-8T, was isolated from farmland soil in Chuzhou, Anhui province, PR China. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain FL-8T and the type strains of species of the genus Terrimonas with validly published names ranged from 94.6 to 96.1 %. Strain FL-8T contained iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH as the predominant fatty acids. The predominant polar lipid of strain FL-8T was phosphatidylethanolamine. The sole respiratory quinone of strain FL-8T was MK-7 and the DNA G+C content was 44.8 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain FL-8T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Terrimonas, for which the name Terrimonassoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FL-8T (=CCTCC AB 2017059T=JCM 32095T).
Terrimonas soli sp. nov.; farmland soil; polyphasic taxonomy.
Terrimonas Soli Sp. Nov., Isolated From Farmland Soil
Wan-Kui Jiang 1, Mei-Yu Lu 1, Meng-Di Cui 1, Xiang Wang 2, Hui Wang 1, Zhan-Gong Yang 1, Shi-Jun Zhu 1, Yi-Dong Zhou 1, Gang Hu 1 3, Qing Hong 1
The bioenergetics of anaerobic metabolism frequently relies on redox loops performed by membrane complexes with substrate- and quinone-binding sites on opposite sides of the membrane. However, in sulfate respiration (a key process in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle), the substrate- and quinone-binding sites of the QrcABCD complex are periplasmic, and their role in energy conservation has not been elucidated. Here we show that the QrcABCD complex of Desulfovibrio vulgaris is electrogenic, as protons and electrons required for quinone reduction are extracted from opposite sides of the membrane, with a H+/e- ratio of 1. Although the complex does not act as a H+-pump, QrcD may include a conserved proton channel leading from the N-side to the P-side menaquinone pocket. Our work provides evidence of how energy is conserved during dissimilatory sulfate reduction, and suggests mechanisms behind the functions of related bacterial respiratory complexes in other bioenergetic contexts.
An Electrogenic Redox Loop in Sulfate Reduction Reveals a Likely Widespread Mechanism of Energy Conservation
Americo G Duarte 1, Teresa Catarino 1 2, Gaye F White 3, Diana Lousa 1, Sinje Neukirchen 4, Claudio M Soares 1, Filipa L Sousa 4, Thomas A Clarke 3, Inês A C Pereira 5
2018 Dec 21;
We have reported that vitamin E intake lowers phylloquinone (PK) concentration in extrahepatic tissues of rats. In this study, we aimed to clarify the characteristic of the distribution of menaquinone-7 (MK-7), a vitamin K contained in fermented foods, by comparison with other vitamin K distributions and to clarify the effect of vitamin E intake on MK-7 concentration in rats. Rats were fed a vitamin K-free diet (Free group), a diet containing 0.75 mg PK/kg (PK group), a 0.74 mg menaquinone-4 (MK-4)/kg diet (MK-4 group), a 1.08 mg MK-7/kg diet (MK-7 group), or a 0.29 mg menadione (MD)/kg diet (MD group) for 16 wk. MK-7 mainly accumulated in the liver, spleen, and adrenal gland of the MK-7 group, although PK accumulated in the serum and all tissues of the PK group. Conversely, MK-4 was present in all tissues of the PK, MK-4, MK-7, and MD groups. MK-4 concentration in the serum, liver, adipose tissue, and spleen was higher in the MK-4 group than in the other groups; however, MK-4 concentration in the kidney, testis, tibia, and brain was lower in the MK-4 group than in the PK, MK-7, and MD groups. Next, vitamin E- and K-deficient rats were orally administered MK-7 with or without α-tocopherol. α-Tocopherol did not affect MK-7 or MK-4 concentration in the serum and various tissues. These results suggested that MK-7 is particularly liable to accumulate in the liver, and MK-7 concentration is not affected by vitamin E intake.
menaquinone-4; menaquinone-7 distribution; phylloquinone; vitamin E; vitamin K metabolism.
Tissue Distribution of Menaquinone-7 and the Effect of α-Tocopherol Intake on Menaquinone-7 Concentration in Rats
Saiko Ikeda 1, Fumiaki Hanzawa 1, Saki Takahashi 1, Norie Suzuki 1, Kana Sano 1, Hiroaki Oda 2, Tomono Uchida 3