Yellow crystalline powder
Trigonella foenum-graecum,Vitex negundo,Gleditsia sinensis,Anemarrhena asphodeloides,Crataegus pinnatifida
4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 5,7-dihydroxy-8-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-/4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 5,7-dihydroxy-8-β-D- glucopyranosyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-/8-Glucosylapigenin/vitexin/Apigenin8-C-glucoside/8-b-D-Glucopyranosyl-apigenin/ORIENTOSIDE/Apigenin 8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside/Vitxein/4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 8-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-/5,7-Dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-8-[(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl]-4H-chromen-4-one/D-Glucitol, 1,5-anhydro-1-C-[5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-8-yl]-, (1S)/8-D-Glucosyl-4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone/8-β-D-Glucopyranosyl-apigenin/(1S)-1,5-Anhydro-1-[5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-4H-chromen-8-yl]-D-glucitol/8-β-D-Glucopyranosyl-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one/Apigenin 8-C-glucoside/Apigenin-8-C-glucoside/4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone-8-C-glucoside/5,7-Dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-8-[(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl]-4H-chromen-4-on/5,7-Dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-8-[(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl]-4H-chromen-4-one
767.7±60.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:3681-93-4) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
The root of Gentiana straminea Maxim. (Gentianaceae), is officially listed as “Qin-Jiao” in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the treatment of rheumatic arthritis, icteric hepatitis, constipation, pain, and hypertension. To establish the geographical origin traceability in G. straminea, its chemical profiles were determined by a UPLC-Q exactive mass spectrometer, from which 43 compounds were identified by comparing retention times and mass spectrometry. Meanwhile, a pair of isomers (loganin and secologanol) was identified by mass spectrometry based on their fragmentation pathway. A total of 42 samples from difference habitats were determined by an UPLC-Q exactive mass spectrometer and the data were assayed with multivariate statistical analysis. Eight characteristic compounds were identified to determine the geographical origin of the herb. To estimate the key characteristic markers associated with pharmacological function, the inhibiting activities of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages were examined. This finding is crucial in realizing the determination of botanical origin and evaluating the quality of G. straminea.
Gentiana straminea, geographical origin, UPLC-Q exactive mass, metabolomics, multivariate analysis
Traceability of Geographical Origin in Gentiana straminea by UPLC-Q Exactive Mass and Multivariate Analyses
Zheng Pan,1,*† Feng Xiong,2,† Yi-Long Chen,3 Guo-Guo Wan,1 Yi Zhang,4 Zhi-Wei Chen,5 Wen-Fu Cao,1 and Guo-Ying Zhou2,*
2019 Dec 6
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including thrombosis, which is induced by platelet aggregation, are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The P2Y1 receptor (P2Y1R) facilitates platelet aggregation and is thus an important potential anti-thrombotic drug target. The P2Y1R protein structure contains a binding site for receptor antagonist MRS2500 within its seven-transmembrane bundle, which also provides suitable pockets for numerous other ligands to act as nucleotide antagonists of P2Y1R. The Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP) comprises 499 Chinese Pharmacopoeia-registered herbs and the structure information for 29,384 ingredients. In silico docking of these compounds into the P2Y1R protein structure within the MRS2500 pocket can identify potential antithrombotic drugs from natural medicinal plants. Docking studies were performed and scored to evaluate ligand-binding affinities. In this study, a total of 8987 compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) were filtered by Lipinski’s rule of five, and their ideal oral-intake properties were evaluated. Of these, 1656 compounds distributed in 443 herbs docked into the P2Y1R-MRS2500 structure in 16,317 poses. A total of 38 compounds were ranked with a DockScore above 70, and these may have significant potential for development into anti-thrombosis drugs. These computational results suggested that licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch), cimicifugae (Cimicifuga foetida L.), and ganoderma (Ganoderma lucidum Karst) and their chemical constituents, which have not previously been widely used for anti-thrombosis, may have unexpected effects on platelet aggregation. Moreover, two types of triterpene scaffolds summarized from 10 compounds were distributed in these three herbs and also docked into P2Y1R. These scaffold structures may be utilized for the development of drugs to inhibit platelet aggregation.
Traditional Chinese medicines, P2Y1R, anti-thrombosis, platelet aggregation, in silico screening
In silico Approach for Anti-Thrombosis Drug Discovery: P2Y1R Structure-Based TCMs Screening
Fan Yi,1,2 Le Sun,1,2 Li-jia Xu,1,2 Yong Peng,1,2 Hai-bo Liu,1,2,* Chun-nian He,1,2,* and Pei-gen Xiao1,2
2017 Jan 9
Ginkgo biloba is a medicinal plant which contains abundant endophytes and various secondary metabolites. According to the literary about the information of endophytics from Ginkgo biloba, Chaetomium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Penicillium and Charobacter were isolated from the root, stem, leaf, seed and bark of G. biloba. The endophytics could produce lots of phytochemicals like flavonoids, terpenoids, and other compounds. These compounds have antibacteria, antioxidation, anticardiovascular, anticancer, antimicrobial and some novel functions. This paper set forth the development of active extracts isolated from endophytes of Ginkgo biloba and will help to improve the resources of Ginkgo biloba to be used in a broader field.
Ginkgo biloba, Chinese medical plant, Endophytes, Secondary metabolites
Endophytes from Ginkgo biloba and their secondary metabolites
Zhihui Yuan,1,3 Yun Tian,1 Fulin He,corresponding author2,3 and Haiyan Zhoucorresponding author1
2019 Nov 8.
Anti-depressant-like effect of vitexin in BALB/c mice and evidence for the involvement of monoaminergic mechanisms PUMID/DOI：23099258 Eur J Pharmacol. 2013 Jan 15;699(1-3):250-7. The anti-immobility effect of Vitexin in the tail-suspension test was reversed with α-methyl-para-tyrosine methyl ester (AMPT, an inhibitor of catecholamine synthesis, 100mg/kg, i.p.), yohimbine (an α(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist, 1mg/kg, i.p.), NAN 190 (a 5-HT(1A) antagonist, 0.5mg/kg, i.p.), SCH 23390 (a dopamine D(1) antagonist, 0.05 mg/kg, s.c.) and sulpiride (a dopamine D(2)/D(3) antagonist, 50mg/kg, i.p.). The same effect was not reversed, however, by p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA; an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis 100mg/kg, i.p., administered for 4 consecutive days), ketanserin (a 5-HT(2A/2C) antagonist, 1-4 mg/kg, i.p.), ondansetron (a 5-HT(3) antagonist, 0.1-0.4 mg/kg, i.p.), prazosin (an α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, 1-4 mg/kg, i.p.), or propranolol (a non-selective β-adrenoceptor antagonist, 5-20mg/kg, i.p.). These results suggest that the anti-depressant-like effect of Vitexin is mediated through an increase in catecholamine levels in the synaptic cleft as well as through interactions with the serotonergic 5-HT(1A), noradrenergic α(2), and dopaminergic D(1), D(2), and D(3) receptors. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show findings that indicate an anti-depressant-like effect of Vitexin and its underlying mechanisms. Vitexin protects brain against ischemia/reperfusion injury via modulating mitogen-activated protein kinase and apoptosis signaling in mice PUMID/DOI：25837275 Phytomedicine. 2015 Mar 15;22(3):379-84. Vitexin is a major bioactive flavonoid compound derived from the dried leaf of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida), a widely used conventional folk medicine in China. Recent studies have shown that Vitexin presents neuroprotective effects in vitro. Whether this protective effect applies to the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains elusive. In the present study, we examined the potential neuroprotective effect of Vitexin against cerebral I/R injury and underlying mechanisms. A focal cerebral I/R model in male Kunming mice was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h followed by reperfusion for 22 h. The neurological function and infarct volume were assessed by using Long's five-point scale system and triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining technique, respectively. Neuronal damage was evaluated by histological staining. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and p38 phosphorylation, and apoptosis were measured via Western blot at 24 h after reperfusion. As a result, systemic Vitexin treatment significantly reduced neurological deficit, cerebral infarct volume and neuronal damage when compared with the I/R group. Western blot analyses revealed that Vitexin markedly upregulated p-ERK1/2 and downregulated p-JNK and p-p38. Meanwhile, Vitexin increased Bcl-2 expression and suppressed the overexpression of Bax in the I/R injury mice. In conclusion, the results indicate that Vitexin protects brain against cerebral I/R injury, and this effect may be regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and apoptosis signaling pathways. Neuroprotective effects of vitexin, a flavonoid, on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in rats PUMID/DOI：22554436 Chem Biol Drug Des. 2012 Aug;80(2):274-8. Flavonoids are important constituents of food and beverages and have several neuropharmacological activities. Many of these compounds are ligands for γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in the central nervous system. This study aimed to investigate the anticonvulsant effects of intracerebroventricularly administered Vitexin (5, 7, 4-trihydroxyflavone-8-glucoside), a flavonoid found in plants, in rats treated with pentylenetetrazole (90 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and to clarify the underlying mechanism. Vitexin (100 and 200 μm, i.c.v) affected minimal clonic seizures and generalized tonic-clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole by increasing the seizure onset time. Pretreatment with flumazenil suppressed the anticonvulsant effects of Vitexin during the onset of both the seizures. These results indicate that Vitexin has anticonvulsant effects in the brain, possibly through interaction at the benzodiazepine site of the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor complex. Vitexin, an HIF-1alpha inhibitor, has anti-metastatic potential in PC12 cells PUMID/DOI：17202857 Mol Cells. 2006 Dec 31;22(3):291-9. Vitexin, a natural flavonoid compound identified as apigenin-8-C-b-D-glucopyranoside, has been reported to exhibit antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated its effect on hypoxia-inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a) in rat pheochromacytoma (PC12), human osteosarcoma (HOS) and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Vitexin inhibited HIF-1a in PC12 cells, but not in HOS or HepG2 cells. In addition, it diminished the mRNA levels of hypoxia-inducible genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), smad3, aldolase A, enolase 1, and collagen type III in the PC12 cells. We found that Vitexin inhibited the migration of PC12 cells as well as their invasion rates, and it also inhibited tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelium cells (HUVECs). Interestingly, Vitexin inhibited the hypoxia-induced activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not of extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase (ERK), implying that it acts in part via the JNK pathway. Overall, these results suggest the potential use of Vitexin as a treatment for diseases such as cancer. The spasmolytic effect of Aloysia citriodora, Palau (South American cedrón) is partially due to its vitexin but not isovitexin on rat duodenums PUMID/DOI：17640836 Citation J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Sep 5;113(2):258-66. Two flavonoids were identified by HPLC in the AEC: Vitexin and isoVitexin. Vitexin non-competitively inhibited the Ach-DRC (pD(2') of 5.7 +/- 0.4) but significantly run leftward the DRC of Ca(2+). IsoVitexin did not significantly inhibit the DRC of Ach nor Ca(2+). The results suggest that the spasmolytic effect of AEC could be mostly associated to the increase in cGMP (target shared with the PDE inhibitors) and the activation of K(+)-channels. At low concentrations, AEC also inhibits the aerobic metabolism. The flavonoid Vitexin is partially responsible for the effect, since it non-competitively inhibits Ach but not the Ca(2+) influx. IsoVitexin was devoid of activity on duodenums. Inhibitory effect of mung bean extract and its constituents vitexin and isovitexin on the formation of advanced glycation endproducts PUMID/DOI：DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.06.016 Food Chem., 2008, 106(2):475-81. Vitexins, nature-derived lignan compounds, induce apoptosis and suppress tumor growth. PUMID/DOI：19671865 Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Aug 15;15(16):5161-9. Contrasts to the classic lignans, Vitexins were not metabolized to END and ENL. A mixture of Vitexins EVn-50 and purified Vitexin compound 6-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxymethyl-7-methoxy-3, 4-dihydro-2-naphthaldehyde have cytotoxic effect on breast, prostate, and ovarian cancer cells and induces apoptosis with cleavage in poly ADP ribose polymerase protein, up-regulation of Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. This induction of apoptosis seems to be mediated by activation of caspases because inhibition of caspases activity significantly reduced induced apoptosis. We showed a broad antitumor activity of EVn-50 on seven tumor xenograft models including breast, prostate, liver, and cervical cancers. Consistent with in vitro data, EVn-50 treatment induced apoptosis, down-regulated of Bcl-2, and up-regulated Bax in tumor xenografts.Vitexin is a class of nature lignan compounds, whose action and anticancer effect is mediated by the mechanisms different from the classic lignans. Vitexin-induced antitumor effect and cytotoxic activity is exerted through proapoptotic process, which is mediated by a decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio and activation of caspases.