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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:1416549-04-6) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Volkensin, a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein from the roots of Adenia volkensii Harms (kilyambiti plant) was characterized both at the protein and nucleotide level by direct amino acid sequencing and cloning of the gene encoding the protein. Gene sequence analysis revealed that volkensin is encoded by a 1569-bp ORF (523 amino acid residues) without introns, with an internal linker sequence of 45 bp. Differences in residues present at several sequence positions (reproduced after repeated protein sequence analyses), with respect to the gene sequence, suggest several isoforms for the volkensin A-chain. Based on the crystallographic coordinates of ricin, which shares a high sequence identity with volkensin, a molecular model of volkensin was obtained. The 3D model suggests that the amino acid residues of the active site of the ricin A-chain are conserved at identical spatial positions, including Ser203, a novel amino acid residue found to be conserved in all known ribosome-inactivating proteins. The sugar binding site 1 of the ricin B-chain is also conserved in the volkensin B-chain, whilst in binding site 2, His246 replaces Tyr248. Native volkensin contains two free cysteinyl residues out of 14 derived from the gene sequence, thus suggesting a further disulphide bridge in the B chain, in addition to the inter- and intrachain disulphide bond pattern common to other type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins.
Volkensin from Adenia volkensii Harms (kilyambiti plant), a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein.
Chambery A1, Di Maro A, Monti MM, Stirpe F, Parente A.
Among two-chain ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), volkensin is the most toxic to cells and animals, and is retrogradely axonally transported in the rat central nervous system, being an effective suicide transport agent. Here we studied the binding, endocytosis, intracellular routeing, degradation and exocytosis of this RIP. The interaction of volkensin with HeLa cells was compared to that of nigrin b, as an example of a type 2 RIP with low toxicity, and of ricin, as a reference toxin. Nigrin b and volkensin bound to cells with comparable affinity (approx. 10(-10) M) and had a similar number of binding sites (2 x 10(5)/cell), two-log lower than that reported for ricin. The cellular uptake of volkensin was lower than that reported for nigrin b and ricin. Confocal microscopy showed the rapid localization of volkensin in the Golgi stacks with a perinuclear localization similar to that of ricin, while nigrin b was distributed between cytoplasmic dots and the Golgi compartment. Consistently, brefeldin A, which disrupts the Golgi apparatus, protected cells from the inhibition of protein synthesis by volkensin or ricin, whereas it was ineffective in the case of nigrin b. Of the cell-released RIPs, 57% of volkensin and only 5% of ricin were active, whilst exocytosed nigrin b was totally inactive. Despite the low binding to, and uptake by, cells, the high cytotoxicity of volkensin may depend on (i) routeing to the Golgi apparatus, (ii) the low level of degradation, (iii) rapid recycling and (iv) the high percentage of active toxin remaining after exocytosis.
Interaction of volkensin with HeLa cells: binding, uptake, intracellular localization, degradation and exocytosis.
Battelli MG1, Musiani S, Buonamici L, Santi S, Riccio M, Maraldi NM, Girbes T, Stirpe F.
Volkensin, a highly toxic protein from the roots of Adenia volkensii (kilyambiti, kinoria), was purified by affinity chromatography on acid-treated Sepharose 6B. The toxin is a glycoprotein (Mr 62,000, neutral sugar content 5.74%) consisting of an A subunit (Mr 29,000) and of a B subunit (Mr 36,000) linked by disulfide and noncovalent bond(s). The amino acid, amino sugar, and neutral sugar composition of the protein were determined. Volkensin is a galactose-specific lectin and is a potent inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis in whole cells as well as in a cell-free system (a rabbit reticulocyte lysate). The inhibitory and the lectin activities are functions of the A and B subunits, respectively. Volkensin can be included amongst the ricin-like toxins and resembles most closely modeccin, the toxin of Adenia digitata.
Properties of volkensin, a toxic lectin from Adenia volkensii.
Stirpe F, Barbieri L, Abbondanza A, Falasca AI, Brown AN, Sandvig K, Olsnes S, Pihl A.
1985 Nov 25