Red crystalline powder
Coptis chinensis Franch./Quaternary alkaloid from Coptis japonica and Coptis chinensis (Ranunculaceae)
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:38763-29-0) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Uraria crinita is widely used as a popular folk drink; however, little is known about how the post-harvest operations affect the chemical composition and bioactivity of UC. We assessed three drying methods (Oven-drying, Air-drying, Sun-drying), as well as the Oven-drying temperature using metabolomics approaches and bioactivity assays. The samples processed at 40 degree show a greater effect on the levels of estrogen receptor-alpha activity and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 activity, anti-oxidative activity, and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition compared with the other samples. A multivariate analysis showed a clear separation between the 40 degree Oven-dried samples and the other samples, which is consistent with the results of bioactivity assay. These results are ascribed to at least two-fold increase in the concentrations of flavonoids, spatholosineside A and triterpenoids in the oven-dried samples compared with the other groups. The proposed Oven-drying method at 40 degree results in an improved quality of UC.
The rigorous implementation of Good Agricultural and Collection Practices (GACP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) is a key step towards improving the quality of herbal teas or functional foods and ensuring the safety, efficacy, and consistent quality of the final products1. However, the current quality control approaches for herbal tea are regional and partial. Different agricultural and manufacturing practices are employed in different places that process the same herbal tea, and this is likely to be one of the major reasons for the heterogeneous quality of the final products. Diverse effects on the nutrient components of different materials may be induced during food processing. Previous study have shown that the retention factor (RF) has been used to calculate the polyphenol contents in processed food: an RF < 1 indicates a reduced polyphenol content in the processed food, whereas RF = 1 and RF > 1 indicate full retention or an increase, respectively2. However, most studies on the effect of post-harvest processing are focused on some targeted components. Therefore, to achieve an overall improvement in quality, the impact of these practices must be considered. Appropriate research is needed to deepen our knowledge of the processing methods and standard operating procedures; this knowledge will enhance the regulation and quality of crude herbal teas.
Uraria crinita (UC) (Leguminosae) is a traditional edible plant in Taiwan and China. The aqueous extract of UC, commonly known as “ginseng-like” herbal tea, is a popular folk drink or functional food3. The root is traditionally used to regulate digestive activity, for deworming, and to treat diarrhea3,4,5. UC is also used by herbalists and doctors for its detoxifying action, its ability to remove swelling5 and its antitussive effects3. A UC ethanol extract is used in herbal cuisine and as part of a medicated diet3,4,5. Pharmacological investigations have demonstrated that plants of the Uraria genus have a wide range of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, analgesic6, and antimicrobial activities7, as well as cytotoxicity8. Previous studies have shown that UC exhibits anti-oxidative activity, nitric oxide-scavenging activity9 and the ability to repel and kill blowfly larvae10.
Our fieldwork has found that various drying methods are used during the post-harvest processing of fresh batches of UC and that the quality of the product varies widely between different farmers. The most common drying methods used for the post-harvest treatment of UC are Oven-drying, Sun-drying and Air-drying in the Shade (supporting information Figure S1). The post-harvest processing of raw materials often has an effect on the chemical composition and the bioactivity of the processed products11. Therefore, it seems likely that the different drying methods that are traditionally used to process UC may lead to various problems, including an uneven quality of the product. However, research on this issue is scarce, and greater efforts are needed to standardize the post-harvest processing of UC.
Different processing methods cause variations in the chemical constituents and biological activity of plant products, and determining how to chemically and biologically evaluate the effect of the post-harvest treatment is the key to improve the quality control of UC products. First, the variations in the chemical components may include both primary metabolites and secondary metabolites, namely the active compounds. However, most reports fail to consider the whole picture of all metabolites and the potential biotransformation between different metabolites12,13. Metabolomics is a systematic approach that qualifies and quantifies as many of the metabolites that are present in an organism as possible. NMR-based metabolomics facilitates high-throughput analysis and offers a holistic snapshot of the metabolome, including both primary and secondary metabolites, which is useful in detecting the possible biotransformation between the primary and secondary metabolites during food processing11. Second, the changes in the chemical compositions in response to processing methods would lead to changes in biological activity. The beneficial effects of the UC extract cannot be attributed to one single substance, but are believed to involve a number of the constituents found in UC. A biological activity assay analyzes the sum of the all of the components in a plant and the interactions of all components. Therefore, metabolomics combined with biological activity evaluations are applied to explore the effects of different processing treatment on UC and the effects of different drying temperatures.
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different drying methods on UC herbal tea by (1) evaluating the different post-harvest processing methods used to process UC using metabolomics and biological activity assays and (2) assessing the effect of the Oven-drying temperature on UC quality. Our results show that compared with traditional methods, the Oven-drying methods improve the concentrations of flavonoids and triterpenoids in UC by more than two-fold, accompanied by decreased level of sugars, which indicates that a significant amount of sugars might be biotransformed to flavonoids and triterpenoids during the Oven-drying process. The findings obtained in this study will be useful for the development of novel strategies for post-harvest processing of UC, which, in turn, should enhance the health benefits and save the herbal resource of UC as a functional food.
Improving the Concentrations of the Active Components in the Herbal Tea Ingredient, Uraria crinita: The Effect of Post-harvest Oven-drying Processing
Jung Chao,1,* Yuntao Dai,2,* Hao-Yuan Cheng,3 Wing Lam,4 Yung-Chi Cheng,4 Ke Li,5 Wen-Huang Peng,6 Li-Heng Pao,7,8 Ming-Tsuen Hsieh,6 Xue-Mei Qin,a,5 and Meng-Shiou Leeb,6
2017 Jan 12
To determine if the effects of epinephrine administration on the outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), patients are associated with the duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed by Emergency Medical Service (EMS) personnel.
This retrospective, nonrandomized, observational analysis used the All-Japan Utstein Registry, a prospective, nationwide population-based registry of all OHCA patients transported to the hospital by EMS staff as the data source. We stratified all OHCA patients for quartile of EMSs’ CPR duration. Group 1 consisted of patients who fell under the 25th percentile of EMSs’ CPR duration (under 15 min); group 2, patients who fell into the 25th to 50th percentile (between 15 and 19 min); group 3, patients who fell into the 50th to 75th percentile (between 20 and 26 min); and group 4, patients who fell at or above the 75th percentile (over 26 min). The primary endpoint was a favorable neurological outcome 1 month after cardiac arrest. The secondary endpoints were ROSC before arrival at the hospital and 1-month survival.
A total of 383,811 patients aged over 18 years who had experienced OHCA between 2006 and 2010 in Japan, when stratified for quartile of EMSs’ CPR duration, the epinephrine administration increased the rate of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) approximately tenfold in all groups. However, the beneficial effects of epinephrine administration on 1-month survival disappeared in patients on whom EMSs’ CPR had been performed for more than 26 min, and the beneficial effects of epinephrine administration on neurological outcomes were observed only in patients on whom EMSs’ CPR had been performed between 15 and 19 min (odds ratio, 1.327, 95 % confidence intervals, 1.017-1.733 P = 0.037).
Epinephrine administration is associated with an increase of ROSC and with improvement in the neurological outcome on which EMSs’ CPR duration is performed between 15 and 19 min.
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, Resuscitation, Epinephrine, Prehospital
Effects of prehospital epinephrine administration on neurological outcomes in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
Yuichi Ono,corresponding author Mineji Hayakawa, Takeshi Wada, Atsushi Sawamura, and Satoshi Gando
2015 Jun 24.
Globally, road traffic injuries accounted for about 1.36 million deaths in 2015 and are projected to become the fourth leading cause of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost by 2030. One-fifth of these deaths occurred in South Asia where road traffic injuries are projected to increase by 144% by 2020. Despite this rapidly increasing disease burden there is limited evidence on the economic burden of road traffic injuries on households in South Asia. We applied a novel coarsened exact matching method to assess the household economic burden of road traffic injuries using nationally representative World Health Survey data from five South Asian countries- Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka collected during 2002-2003. We examined the impact of road traffic injuries on household out-of-pocket (OOP) health spending, household non-medical consumption expenditure and the employment status of the traffic injury-affected respondent. We exactly matched a household (after ‘coarsening’) where a respondent reported being involved in a road traffic injury to households where the respondent did not report a road traffic injury on each of multiple observed household characteristics. Our analysis found that road traffic injury-affected households had significantly higher levels of OOP health spending per member (I$0.75, p<0.01), higher OOP spending on drugs per member (I$0.30, p = 0.03), and higher OOP hospital spending per member (I$0.29, p<0.01) in the four weeks preceding the survey. Indicators of “catastrophic spending” were also significantly higher in road traffic injury-affected households: 6.45% (p<0.01) for a threshold of OOP health spending to total household spending ratio of 20%, and 7.40% (p<0.01) for a threshold of OOP health spending to household ‘capacity to pay’ ratio of 40%. However, no statistically significant effects were observed for household non-medical consumption expenditure, and employment status of the road traffic injury-affected individual. Our analysis points to the need for financial risk protection against the road traffic injury-related OOP health expenditure and a focus on prevention.
The Economic Burden of Road Traffic Injuries on Households in South Asia
Khurshid Alam1,2,* and Ajay Mahal3,4
2016 Oct 21