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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:146-80-5) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
The mammary gland undergoes distinct periods of growth, development, and secretory activity. During bovine lactation, a gradual decrease in the number of mammary epithelial cells largely accounts for the decline in milk production with advancing lactation. The net decline in cell number (approx. 50%) is due to cell death but is simultaneously accompanied by cell renewal. Although the rate of cell proliferation is slow, by the end of lactation most cells in the gland were formed after calving. Typically milking is terminated when cows are in the final 2 mo of pregnancy. This causes regenerative involution, wherein extensive cell replacement and mammary growth occurs. We hypothesized that replacement of senescent secretory cells and progenitor cells during the dry period increases milk yield in the next lactation. Analysis of global gene expression revealed networks and canonical pathways during regenerative involution that support cell turnover and mammary growth, and reflect oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Immune responses consistent with influx of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes, and processes that support mammary differentiation and lactogenesis were also evident. Data also suggest that replication of stem and progenitor cells occurs during the dry period. Relying on long-term retention of bromodeoxyuridine-labeled DNA, we identified putative bovine mammary stem cells. These label-retaining epithelial cells (LREC) are in low abundance within mammary epithelium (<1%), predominantly estrogen receptor-negative, and localized in a basal or suprabasal layer of the epithelium. Analyses of gene expression in laser-microdissected LREC are consistent with the concept that LREC represent stem cells and progenitor cells, which differ in properties and location within the epithelial layer. We identified potential markers for these cells and have increased their number by infusing xanthosine through the teat canal of prepubertal heifers. Altering population dynamics of mammary stem and progenitor cells during the mammary cycle may be a means to increase efficiency of milk production.
cell turnover; lactation; mammary stem cells; regenerative involution; ribonucleoside.
Symposium review: Determinants of milk production: Understanding population dynamics in the bovine mammary epithelium
Anthony V Capuco 1, Ratan K Choudhary 2
Nature relies on reading and synthesizing the genetic code with high fidelity. Nucleic acid building blocks that are orthogonal to the canonical A-T and G-C base-pairs are therefore uniquely suitable to facilitate position-specific labeling of nucleic acids. Here, we employ the orthogonal kappa-xanthosine-base-pair for in vitro transcription of labeled RNA. We devised an improved synthetic route to obtain the phosphoramidite of the deoxy-version of the kappa nucleoside in solid phase synthesis. From this DNA template, we demonstrate the reliable incorporation of xanthosine during in vitro transcription. Using NMR spectroscopy, we show that xanthosine introduces only minor structural changes in an RNA helix. We furthermore synthesized a clickable 7-deaza-xanthosine, which allows to site-specifically modify transcribed RNA molecules with fluorophores or other labels.
NMR; RNA; fluorescence; genetic code expansion; site-specific labeling.
Genetic Code Expansion Facilitates Position-Selective Labeling of RNA for Biophysical Studies
Andreas Hegelein 1, Diana Muller 1, Sylvester Großl 2, Michael Gobel 2, Martin Hengesbach 1, Harald Schwalbe 1
2020 Feb 6
Plants can fully catabolize purine nucleotides. A firmly established central intermediate is the purine base xanthine. In the current widely accepted model of plant purine nucleotide catabolism, xanthine can be generated in various ways involving either inosine and hypoxanthine or guanosine and xanthosine as intermediates. In a comprehensive mutant analysis involving single and multiple mutants of urate oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, nucleoside hydrolases, guanosine deaminase, and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, we demonstrate that purine nucleotide catabolism in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mainly generates xanthosine, but not inosine and hypoxanthine, and that xanthosine is derived from guanosine deamination and a second source, likely xanthosine monophosphate dephosphorylation. Nucleoside hydrolase 1 (NSH1) is known to be essential for xanthosine hydrolysis, but the in vivo function of a second cytosolic nucleoside hydrolase, NSH2, is unclear. We demonstrate that NSH1 activates NSH2 in vitro and in vivo, forming a complex with almost two orders of magnitude higher catalytic efficiency for xanthosine hydrolysis than observed for NSH1 alone. Remarkably, an inactive NSH1 point mutant can activate NSH2 in vivo, fully preventing purine nucleoside accumulation in nsh1 background. Our data lead to an altered model of purine nucleotide catabolism that includes an NSH heterocomplex as a central component.
AMP and GMP Catabolism in Arabidopsis Converge on Xanthosine, Which Is Degraded by a Nucleoside Hydrolase Heterocomplex
Chiara Baccolini 1, Claus-Peter Witte 2