(3R,3'R)-Dihydroxy-b-carotene/all-trans-Zeaxanthin/(1R,1'R)-4,4'-[(1E,3E,5E,7E,9E,11E,13E,15E,17E)-3,7,12,16-Tetramethyl-1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17-octadecanonaene-1,18-diyl]bis(3,5,5-trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-ol)/?,?-Carotene-3,3'-diol, (3R,3'R)-/(1R,1'R)-4,4'-[(1E,3E,5E,7E,9E,11E,13E,15E,17E)-3,7,12,16-Tetramethyl-1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17-octadecanonaen-1,18-diyl]bis(3,5,5-trimethyl-3-cyclohexen-1-ol)/(1R)-4-[(1E,3E,5E,7E,9E,11E,13E,15E,17E)-18-[(4R)-4-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexen-1-yl]-3,7,12,16-tetramethyloctadeca-1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17-nonaenyl]-3,5,5-trimethylcyclohex-3-en-1-ol/(3R,3'R)-?,?-Carotene-3,3'-diol/Zeaxanthin/Zeaxanthol/Xanthophyll 3/Anchovyxanthin
Methanol; Dichloromethane; DMF
711.4±55.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of lutein, zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin on macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and healthy subjects. Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases was searched through May 2016. Meta-analysis was conducted to obtain adjusted weighted mean differences (WMD) for intervention-versus-placebo group about the change of MPOD between baseline and terminal point. Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between the changes in MPOD and blood xanthophyll carotenoids or baseline MPOD levels. Twenty RCTs involving 938 AMD patients and 826 healthy subjects were identified. Xanthophyll carotenoids supplementation was associated with significant increase in MPOD in AMD patients (WMD, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.11) and healthy subjects (WMD, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.14). Stratified analysis showed a greater increase in MPOD among trials supplemented and combined with meso-zeaxanthin. Additionally, the changes in MPOD were related with baseline MPOD levels (rAMD = -0.43, p = 0.06; rhealthy subjects = -0.71, p < 0.001) and blood xanthophyll carotenoids concentration (rAMD = 0.40, p = 0.07; rhealthy subjects = 0.33, p = 0.05). This meta-analysis revealed that lutein, zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin supplementation improved MPOD both in AMD patients and healthy subjects with a dose-response relationship.
lutein; macular pigment optical density; meso-zeaxanthin; zeaxanthin
Lutein, Zeaxanthin and Meso-zeaxanthin Supplementation Associated with Macular Pigment Optical Density.
Ma L1,2, Liu R3,4, Du JH5, Liu T6, Wu SS7, Liu XH8.
2016 Jul 12
In this study, the antioxidant capacity and oxidative stability of zeaxanthin with different concentrations in soybean oil were evaluated. The oxidative or isomerization products of zeaxanthin were monitored during oxidation for 12 h at 110 °C. It was found that the ability to scavenge the free radicals (DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS) was dependent upon the concentration of zeaxanthin. However, antioxidation of zeaxanthin was observed when the concentration was less than 50 ?g/g. When the concentration exceeded 50 ?g/g, zeaxanthin acted as a pro-oxidant. There were three kinds of non-volatile products of zeaxanthin that were detected: (a) Z-violaxanthin, (b) 9-Z-zeaxanthin, and (c) 13-Z-zeaxanthin, and it was found that the content of 13-Z-zeaxanthin formed by isomerization was the highest. In addition, the linear ketone (6-methyl-3,5-heptadien-2-one) and cyclic volatile products (3-hydroxy-?-cyclocitral, 3-hydroxy-5,6-epoxy-7,8-dihydro-?-ionone, and 3-hydroxy-?-ionone) formed by in situ oxidative cleavage were identified.
antioxidants; free radical scavenging; oxidative cleavage; pro-oxidants; zeaxanthin
Zeaxanthin in Soybean Oil: Impact of Oxidative Stability, Degradation Pattern, and Product Analysis.
Yao Y1, Zhang D1, Li R1, Zhou H1, Liu W1, Li C1, Wang S2.
2020 Apr 17
Green plants protect against photodamage by dissipating excess energy in a process called non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). In vivo, NPQ is activated by a drop in the luminal pH of the thylakoid membrane that triggers conformational changes of the antenna complexes, which activate quenching channels. The drop in pH also triggers de-epoxidation of violaxanthin, one of the carotenoids bound within the antenna complexes, into zeaxanthin, and so the amplitude of NPQ in vivo has been shown to increase in the presence of zeaxanthin. In vitro studies on light-harvesting complex II (LHCII), the major antenna complex in plants, compared different solubilization environments, which give rise to different levels of quenching and so partially mimic NPQ in vivo. However, in these studies both completely zeaxanthin-independent and zeaxanthin-dependent quenching have been reported, potentially due to the multiplicity of solubilization environments. Here, we characterize the zeaxanthin dependence of the photophysics in LHCII in a near-physiological membrane environment, which produces slightly enhanced quenching relative to detergent solubilization, the typical in vitro environment. The photophysical pathways of dark-adapted and in vitro de-epoxidized LHCIIs are compared, representative of the low-light and high-light conditions in vivo, respectively. The amplitude of quenching as well as the dissipative photophysics are unaffected by zeaxanthin at the level of individual LHCIIs, suggesting that zeaxanthin-dependent quenching is independent of the channels induced by the membrane. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that additional factors beyond zeaxanthin incorporation in LHCII are required for full development of NPQ.
Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Light-harvesting complex II (LHCII); Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ); Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES); Xanthophyll cycle
Zeaxanthin independence of photophysics in light-harvesting complex II in a membrane environment.
Son M1, Pinnola A2, Schlau-Cohen GS3.
2020 Jun 1