Sulforaphane is a dominant phytochemical which is mostly found in green vegetables. It is a compound obtained in nature from many vegetables, such as cabbage (white and red), broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, bok choy, arugula, watercress and kale. It is a powerful activator of the NRF2 pathway which affects the expression of over 200 genes including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes that inactivate the harmful compounds in the body. Sulforaphane has also many other potential benefits, it provide a shield against cancer and it prevents the effects that likely influence the cardiovascular disease. Researchers have shown that sulforaphane has the capability to help enhance the emission of carcinogens.
- Molecular formula: C6H11NOS2
- Molar mass:177.29 g/mol
- Density: 1.2±0.1g/cm
- Enthalpy of vaporization: 59.1±3.0 kJ/mol
- Boiling point: 368.2±25.0 °C
- Melting point: 74.6 °C
BRIEF DESCRIPTION AND NATURAL SOURCE
Sulforaphane is a phytochemical rich in sulfur compound found in green vegetables, broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage etc. It is known for its potential health benefits against different diseases. Basically in the fresh foods having sulforaphane is in the form of glucoraphanin which is inactive, it is activated when glucoraphanin contacts with the myrosinase, an enzyme which leads role in the defense response of plants. Myrosinase are inactive in fresh plants and they only activate when the plant is crashed therefore the cruciferous vegetables be cut, chewed, chopped to discharge the myrosinase and make active the sulforaphane. Cooked vegetables lost the efficiency of sulforaphane according to a study; its steaming for two to three minutes may retain its benefits.
The supplements of sulforaphane which are made of broccoli sprout extract contain more sulforaphane as compared to naturally present in food. These supplements are combined with myrosinase for activation. Those increase the sulforaphane production in the body.
Its clinical/pharmaceutical applications are limited due to its relative instability. It is affected by pH, heat, temp, oxygen and light. So its stabilization becomes a challenge. An option to stabilize sulforaphane and even increase its bioavailability in a food matrix is microencapsulation.
Sulforaphane has many health benefits, it protects against the diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, inflammation. It is well aware of neutralizing the toxins, reducing the inflammation. Some other benefits are described below;
■ Sulforaphane protects the DNA by blocking mutation in DNA which leads to cancer.
■ Sulforaphane has ability to stop the cancerous cells to develop and grow.
■ Its antioxidant properties may remove the free radicals which are potentially slowing down the performance of body against different diseases.
■ Sulforaphane provide a shield against the ultraviolet (UV) skin damage caused by sun burn.
■ Sulforaphane may improve the mental health and protects against brain damage after a brain injury.
■ The benefit of sulforaphane is eat vegetable in raw form or cooked at temperature below than 140 °C.
■ An antioxidant in sulforaphane rich compounds is zeaxanthin which protects eyes fo being blur vision and cataracts, a clouding of the eye’s lens.
■ Sulforaphane found in vegetable like baroccoli improve the digestive system and reduce the constipation.
■ Sulforaphane reduce the bones and joints problem
■ Sulforaphane is helpful in dental diseases
■ It changes gene activation process. It cause demethylation, and restores the activity of important tumor suppressing and cell cycle controlling gene.
■ Sulforaphane inhibits the NF-Kb path way and reduces inflammation
■ It increase human immune systemMoreover Sulforaphane promotes detoxification ,fight against cancer , lower cholesterol level, boost the immune system , lower blood glucose level, is anti bacterial , antifungal protect skin, brain, eyes, kidneys and restore its cognitive function.
A portion of different advantages of Sulforaphane incorporate better spatial working memory and momentary memory (from research in mice). It increments neuritis outgrowth – a cycle by which harmed neurons and neurotransmitters fix themselves horrendous mind injury, and has additionally been appeared to altogether diminish memory debilitation.
Below are the following highlights of its benefits.
Anti cancer, antioxidant, anti diabetes, anti inflammation, anti aging,
SAFETY AND PRECAUTIONS
The use of sulphoraphane during pregnancy and breast feeding mother is safe when the amount of sulphoraphane is taken by the food. it may be harmful when it is used in large amount as a medicine. Sulphoraphane supplements may increase gas, constipation, and diarrhea.